Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first experimental observation by fluorescent visualization, of the evolution of the mode field profile in a periodically segmented waveguide. The experimental observations are then compared with the numerical results obtained by a finite-difference beam propagation method. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results is observed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, “Integrated optical waveguide examination using anti-Stokes fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553–554 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Papuchon, B. Puech, C. Puech, D. B. Ostrowsky, “A movie on the visualization of the electrically controlled optical directional coupler,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper TuA2.
  3. B. Sejourne-Puech, “Application de la methode de flurescence à la caractérisation des circuits optique intégrée,” thesis (Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Metiers, Paris, 1981).
  4. J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Fabrication of periodically domain-inverted channel waveguides in lithium niobate for second harmonic generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1597–1600 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, “Efficient type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074–2076 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Simultaneous generation of UV and visible light in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1872–1874 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Wiessman, A. Hardy, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, “Second harmonic generation in Bragg-resonant quasi-phase-matched periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 674–676 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. P. Risk, S. D. Lau, “Distributed-Bragg-reflection properties of segmented KTP waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 272–274 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. H. Chou, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, “Adiabatically tapered periodic segmentation of channel waveguides for mode size transformation and fundamental mode excitation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 794–796 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Weissman, I. Handel, “Analysis of periodically seg-mented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053–2508 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Li, J. J. Burke, “Linear propagation characteristics of periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1195–1197 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1838 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Propagation characteristics of planar segmented waveguides with parabolic index segments,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2113–2115 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Equivalent waveguide model for parabolic index segmented waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 121, 27–30 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Thyagarajan, C. W. Chien, R. V. Ramaswamy, H. S. Kim, H. C. Cheng, “Proton exchanged periodically segmented waveguides in LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 880–882 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Nir, Z. Weissman, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, “Periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1732–1734 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Eger, M. Oron, M. Katz, “Optical characterisation of KTiOPO4 periodically segmented waveguides for second harmonic generation of blue light,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4298–4302 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. D. Stancil, “Kronig–Penney model for periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4767–4771 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. A. Besley, N. N. Akhmediev, P. D. Miller, “Mode of periodic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1162–1164 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. Rastogi, A. K. Ghatak, D. B. Ostrowsky, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Ray analysis of parabolic-index segmented planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4851–4856 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. L. Wachspress, “Optimum alternating-direction-implicit iteration parameters for a model problem,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 10, 339–350 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363–370 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

Z. Wiessman, A. Hardy, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, “Second harmonic generation in Bragg-resonant quasi-phase-matched periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 674–676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Equivalent waveguide model for parabolic index segmented waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 121, 27–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, I. Handel, “Analysis of periodically seg-mented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053–2508 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

1993 (4)

D. Eger, M. Oron, M. Katz, “Optical characterisation of KTiOPO4 periodically segmented waveguides for second harmonic generation of blue light,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4298–4302 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Simultaneous generation of UV and visible light in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1872–1874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Risk, S. D. Lau, “Distributed-Bragg-reflection properties of segmented KTP waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 272–274 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, J. J. Burke, “Linear propagation characteristics of periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1195–1197 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, “Efficient type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074–2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Fabrication of periodically domain-inverted channel waveguides in lithium niobate for second harmonic generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1597–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, “Integrated optical waveguide examination using anti-Stokes fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553–554 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

E. L. Wachspress, “Optimum alternating-direction-implicit iteration parameters for a model problem,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 10, 339–350 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

Arbore, M. A.

Arvidsson, G.

J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Fabrication of periodically domain-inverted channel waveguides in lithium niobate for second harmonic generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1597–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Besley, J. A.

Bhargava, R. N.

J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Simultaneous generation of UV and visible light in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1872–1874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, “Efficient type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074–2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. B.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Simultaneous generation of UV and visible light in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1872–1874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, “Efficient type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074–2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. J.

Chaudhuri, S. K.

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

Chien, C. W.

Chou, M. H.

Chu, S. T.

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colak, S.

J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eger, D.

Z. Wiessman, A. Hardy, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, “Second harmonic generation in Bragg-resonant quasi-phase-matched periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 674–676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Eger, M. Oron, M. Katz, “Optical characterisation of KTiOPO4 periodically segmented waveguides for second harmonic generation of blue light,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4298–4302 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Ghatak, A. K.

Hadley, G. R.

G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Handel, I.

Z. Weissman, I. Handel, “Analysis of periodically seg-mented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053–2508 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

Huang, W.

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Z. Wiessman, A. Hardy, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, “Second harmonic generation in Bragg-resonant quasi-phase-matched periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 674–676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Eger, M. Oron, M. Katz, “Optical characterisation of KTiOPO4 periodically segmented waveguides for second harmonic generation of blue light,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4298–4302 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J.

J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

Lau, S. D.

Laubacher, D. B.

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Simultaneous generation of UV and visible light in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1872–1874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Fabrication of periodically domain-inverted channel waveguides in lithium niobate for second harmonic generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1597–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Mahalakshmi, V.

K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Equivalent waveguide model for parabolic index segmented waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 121, 27–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Propagation characteristics of planar segmented waveguides with parabolic index segments,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2113–2115 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, P. D.

Nir, D.

Nouh, S.

P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

Z. Wiessman, A. Hardy, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, “Second harmonic generation in Bragg-resonant quasi-phase-matched periodically segmented waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 674–676 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Eger, M. Oron, M. Katz, “Optical characterisation of KTiOPO4 periodically segmented waveguides for second harmonic generation of blue light,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4298–4302 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

V. Rastogi, A. K. Ghatak, D. B. Ostrowsky, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Ray analysis of parabolic-index segmented planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4851–4856 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, “Integrated optical waveguide examination using anti-Stokes fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553–554 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Papuchon, B. Puech, C. Puech, D. B. Ostrowsky, “A movie on the visualization of the electrically controlled optical directional coupler,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper TuA2.

Papuchon, M.

M. Papuchon, B. Puech, C. Puech, D. B. Ostrowsky, “A movie on the visualization of the electrically controlled optical directional coupler,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper TuA2.

Puech, B.

M. Papuchon, B. Puech, C. Puech, D. B. Ostrowsky, “A movie on the visualization of the electrically controlled optical directional coupler,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper TuA2.

Puech, C.

M. Papuchon, B. Puech, C. Puech, D. B. Ostrowsky, “A movie on the visualization of the electrically controlled optical directional coupler,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper TuA2.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

Rastogi, V.

Risk, W. P.

Roy, A. M.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, “Integrated optical waveguide examination using anti-Stokes fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553–554 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ruschin, S.

Sejourne-Puech, B.

B. Sejourne-Puech, “Application de la methode de flurescence à la caractérisation des circuits optique intégrée,” thesis (Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Metiers, Paris, 1981).

Sevin, J.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, “Integrated optical waveguide examination using anti-Stokes fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553–554 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, M. R.

V. Rastogi, A. K. Ghatak, D. B. Ostrowsky, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, “Ray analysis of parabolic-index segmented planar waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4851–4856 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Equivalent waveguide model for parabolic index segmented waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 121, 27–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Propagation characteristics of planar segmented waveguides with parabolic index segments,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2113–2115 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stancil, D. D.

Stolzenberger, R.

J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

Van der Poel, C. J.

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, “Efficient type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074–2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wachspress, E. L.

E. L. Wachspress, “Optimum alternating-direction-implicit iteration parameters for a model problem,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 10, 339–350 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Webjorn, J.

J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Fabrication of periodically domain-inverted channel waveguides in lithium niobate for second harmonic generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1597–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, Z.

Z. Weissman, I. Handel, “Analysis of periodically seg-mented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053–2508 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Nir, Z. Weissman, S. Ruschin, A. Hardy, “Periodically segmented waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1732–1734 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiessman, Z.

Xu, C.

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. D. Bierlein, D. B. Laubacher, J. B. Brown, C. J. Van der Poel, “Balanced phase matching in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1725–1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, “Efficient type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2074–2076 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Khurgin, S. Colak, R. Stolzenberger, R. N. Bhargava, “Mechanism of efficient blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2540–2542 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, J. D. Bierlein, “Simultaneous generation of UV and visible light in segmented KTP waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1872–1874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, “Integrated optical waveguide examination using anti-Stokes fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553–554 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. R. Hadley, “Transparent boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363–370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Eger, M. Oron, M. Katz, “Optical characterisation of KTiOPO4 periodically segmented waveguides for second harmonic generation of blue light,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4298–4302 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, “Fabrication of periodically domain-inverted channel waveguides in lithium niobate for second harmonic generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1597–1600 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, A. Hardy, “Modes of periodically segmented waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1831–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Weissman, I. Handel, “Analysis of periodically seg-mented waveguide mode expanders,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2053–2508 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. T. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, “The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: analysis and assessment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 295–304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. (1)

E. L. Wachspress, “Optimum alternating-direction-implicit iteration parameters for a model problem,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 10, 339–350 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. Thyagarajan, V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenoy, “Equivalent waveguide model for parabolic index segmented waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 121, 27–30 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Baldi, M. R. Shenoy, S. Nouh, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, “Estimation of extent of influence of longitudinal diffusion on LiNbO3 proton exchanged segmented strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 104, 308–312 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Other (2)

M. Papuchon, B. Puech, C. Puech, D. B. Ostrowsky, “A movie on the visualization of the electrically controlled optical directional coupler,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper TuA2.

B. Sejourne-Puech, “Application de la methode de flurescence à la caractérisation des circuits optique intégrée,” thesis (Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Metiers, Paris, 1981).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical PSW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode intensity profile of a typical PSW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup for mode observation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental and (b) numerical pictures of the fundamental mode intensity modulation of a PSW with 3-µm-guide width, 9-µm-period, and 50% duty cycle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental and numerical longitudinal fluorescence intensity profiles corresponding to the waveguide of Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Picture of the fundamental mode intensity modulation of a PSW with 3-µm guide width and shorter (6-µm) period.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Longitudinal fluorescence intensity profile corresponding to the waveguide of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Picture of fluorescence intensity from a multimoded PSW with 7-µm guide width and 6-µm period.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Longitudinal fluorescence intensity profile corresponding to the waveguide of Fig. 8.

Equations (1)

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