Abstract

The diffraction efficiency of volume gratings written by two-wave mixing in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate (Ce:KNSBN) photorefractive crystal is studied. It is found that the diffraction efficiency strongly depends on the polarization of writing beams and exhibits loop behavior with respect to the fringe modulation. The fringe modulations before and behind the crystal are compared. Modified coupled-wave theory is used to fit the experimental data. This research presents data that are relevant to the application of Ce:KNSBN crystals to holographic recording and optical information processing.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Amodei, D. L. Steabier, W. Stephens, “Holographic storage in doped barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNbO15),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 507–509 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. H. Mok, M. C. Tackitt, H. M. Stoll, “Storage of 500 high-resolution holograms in a LiNbO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 16, 605–607 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Psaltis, F. Mok, H. S. Li, “Nonvolatile storage in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 210–213 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Ma, L. Liu, S. Wu, Z. Wang, L. Xu, B. Shu, “Multibeam coupling in photorefractive LiNbO3:Ce,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1020–1022 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Vachss, L. Hesselink, “Nonlinear photorefractive response at high modulation depths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 5, 690–701 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Y. Zhou, F. Zhao, Francis T. S. Yu, “Angle-dependent diffraction efficiency in a thick photorefractive hologram,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1303–1309 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. H. Hong, R. Saxena, “Diffraction efficiency of volume holograms written by coupled beams,” Opt. Lett. 16, 180–182 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  10. R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Z. Cai, P. Yeh, H. K. Liu, “Mean fringe contrast, optimum beam ratio and maximum diffraction efficiency for volume gratings written by coupled waves,” Opt. Commun. 132, 48–54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, N. J. Cook, “Effects of optical bias on moving gratings in bismuth silicon oxide at large fringe modulation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3829–3834 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Q. Wang, H. Zhang, C. M. Cartwright, M. S. Ding, N. J. Cook, W. A. Gillespie, “Edge enhancement by use of moving gratings in a bismuth silicon oxide crystal and its application to optical correlation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4449–4456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. L. Ramazza, M. Zhao, “Experimental study of two-wave mixing amplification in Cu-doped KNSBN,” Opt. Commun. 102, 93–99 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

L. Z. Cai, P. Yeh, H. K. Liu, “Mean fringe contrast, optimum beam ratio and maximum diffraction efficiency for volume gratings written by coupled waves,” Opt. Commun. 132, 48–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Wang, C. M. Cartwright, W. A. Gillespie, N. J. Cook, “Effects of optical bias on moving gratings in bismuth silicon oxide at large fringe modulation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3829–3834 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhou, F. Zhao, Francis T. S. Yu, “Angle-dependent diffraction efficiency in a thick photorefractive hologram,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1303–1309 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

P. L. Ramazza, M. Zhao, “Experimental study of two-wave mixing amplification in Cu-doped KNSBN,” Opt. Commun. 102, 93–99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (2)

F. Vachss, L. Hesselink, “Nonlinear photorefractive response at high modulation depths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 5, 690–701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Steabier, W. Stephens, “Holographic storage in doped barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNbO15),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 507–509 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Steabier, W. Stephens, “Holographic storage in doped barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNbO15),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 507–509 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. Z.

L. Z. Cai, P. Yeh, H. K. Liu, “Mean fringe contrast, optimum beam ratio and maximum diffraction efficiency for volume gratings written by coupled waves,” Opt. Commun. 132, 48–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, C. M.

Chen, H. C.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Conners, L. M.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cook, N. J.

Ding, M. S.

Gillespie, W. A.

Hall, T. J.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

F. Vachss, L. Hesselink, “Nonlinear photorefractive response at high modulation depths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 5, 690–701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. H.

Huang, S. H.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jaura, R.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q. Z.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. S.

Lin, J. L.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. K.

L. Z. Cai, P. Yeh, H. K. Liu, “Mean fringe contrast, optimum beam ratio and maximum diffraction efficiency for volume gratings written by coupled waves,” Opt. Commun. 132, 48–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Ma, J.

McMichael, I.

R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F.

Mok, F. H.

Psaltis, D.

Ramazza, P. L.

P. L. Ramazza, M. Zhao, “Experimental study of two-wave mixing amplification in Cu-doped KNSBN,” Opt. Commun. 102, 93–99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, R.

J. H. Hong, R. Saxena, “Diffraction efficiency of volume holograms written by coupled beams,” Opt. Lett. 16, 180–182 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shu, B.

Steabier, D. L.

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Steabier, W. Stephens, “Holographic storage in doped barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNbO15),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 507–509 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, W.

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Steabier, W. Stephens, “Holographic storage in doped barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNbO15),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 507–509 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, H. M.

Tackitt, M. C.

Tian, M. Z.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toote, P. D.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vachss, F.

R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Vachss, L. Hesselink, “Nonlinear photorefractive response at high modulation depths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 5, 690–701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. Q.

Wen, M.

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Xu, L.

Yang, Z.

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

L. Z. Cai, P. Yeh, H. K. Liu, “Mean fringe contrast, optimum beam ratio and maximum diffraction efficiency for volume gratings written by coupled waves,” Opt. Commun. 132, 48–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Francis T. S.

Yu, J. Q.

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

H. Y. Zhou, F. Zhao, Francis T. S. Yu, “Angle-dependent diffraction efficiency in a thick photorefractive hologram,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1303–1309 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

P. L. Ramazza, M. Zhao, “Experimental study of two-wave mixing amplification in Cu-doped KNSBN,” Opt. Commun. 102, 93–99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. Y.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Amodei, D. L. Steabier, W. Stephens, “Holographic storage in doped barium sodium niobate (Ba2NaNbO15),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 507–509 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

F. Vachss, L. Hesselink, “Nonlinear photorefractive response at high modulation depths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 5, 690–701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

R. Saxena, F. Vachss, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, “Diffraction properties of multiple-beam photorefractive gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 7, 1210–1215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

L. Z. Cai, P. Yeh, H. K. Liu, “Mean fringe contrast, optimum beam ratio and maximum diffraction efficiency for volume gratings written by coupled waves,” Opt. Commun. 132, 48–54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Wang, M. Z. Tian, J. L. Lin, S. H. Huang, J. Q. Yu, H. C. Chen, Q. Z. Jiang, “Study of two-wave coupling in Cu:KNSBN using red light,” Opt. Commun. 115, 563–567 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Ramazza, M. Zhao, “Experimental study of two-wave mixing amplification in Cu-doped KNSBN,” Opt. Commun. 102, 93–99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, H. Zhou, F. Zhao, M. Wen, Z. Yang, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, “Wavelength-multiplexed holographic storage in a sensitive photorefractive crystal using a visible-light tunable diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 101, 317–321 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Conners, P. D. Toote, “The photorefractive effect—a review,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77–146 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency η as a function of the fringe modulation m: (a) E-write/E-read case, (b) O-write/E-read case. Solid curve, theoretical fitting curve; dotted curve, data of steps 1 and 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fringe modulation as a function of the beam ratio β: (a) E-write/E-read case, (b) O-write/E-read case.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η=sin2πΔnL/λ cos θ,
dARdz=-α2 cos θ AR-iπλ cos θ×Δnsβ expΓz/2+exp-Γz/2/β AD,  dADdz=-α2 cos θ AD-iπλ cos θ×Δnsβ expΓz/2+exp-Γz/2/β AR,
Biz=Aizexpαz2 cos θ,  i=R, D,  z=2Γ tan-1expΓzβ/2,
dBRdz=iκBD,  dBDdz=-iκBR,
η=exp-αLcos θsin22κΓtan-1β expΓL/2-tan-1β.

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