Abstract

Fabrication of surface reliefs is achieved by raster scanning dry photopolymer films under a focused laser beam. The formation of the structure takes place subsequent to illumination without any chemical treatment or wet processing. Computer-generated optical elements can be recorded quickly, easily, and at low cost. The technology is particularly well suited for rapid prototyping and design purposes. These photopolymer films have potential in photonics applications, such as diffractive optical elements and waveguide structures.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. A. Mack, “Development of positive photoresists,” J. Elec. Soc. 143, 148–152 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, “High aspect–ratio holographic photoresist gratings,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2999–3002 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Mashev, S. Tonchev, “Formation of holographic diffraction gratings in photoresist,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 143–149 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Y. Amuk, N. M. Lawandy, “Direct laser writing of diffractive optics in glass,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1030–1032 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).
  7. D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).
  10. R. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, D. Kip, “Surface relief gratings in self-developing photopolymer films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 17–23 (1998).
  11. S. Calixto, “Dry polymer for holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3904–3910 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Weiss, E. Millul, “Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293–300 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).
  14. Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, S. Calixto, D.-J. Lougnot, “Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 787–793 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Manivannan, G. Lemelin, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Computer-generated holograms on a metal ion-doped polymer system: contact copying,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3478–3481 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. S. Solovjev, Y. B. Boiko, V. A. Sojfer, “Computer-generated holographic optical elements on photopolymers,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 248–258 (1994).

1997 (2)

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Amuk, N. M. Lawandy, “Direct laser writing of diffractive optics in glass,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1030–1032 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Weiss, E. Millul, “Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

S. Calixto, “Dry polymer for holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3904–3910 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Mack, “Development of positive photoresists,” J. Elec. Soc. 143, 148–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. Mashev, S. Tonchev, “Formation of holographic diffraction gratings in photoresist,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 143–149 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Amuk, A. Y.

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beaulieu, R.

R. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, D. Kip, “Surface relief gratings in self-developing photopolymer films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 17–23 (1998).

Beaulieu, R. M.

D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).

Boiko, Y. B.

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, S. Calixto, D.-J. Lougnot, “Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 787–793 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Solovjev, Y. B. Boiko, V. A. Sojfer, “Computer-generated holographic optical elements on photopolymers,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 248–258 (1994).

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

Bolte, M.

D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).

R. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, D. Kip, “Surface relief gratings in self-developing photopolymer films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 17–23 (1998).

Brueck, S. R. J.

Calixto, S.

Changkakoti, R.

Dilung, I. I.

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

Duguay, M. A.

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glabasnia, L.

D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).

Granchak, V. M.

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).

R. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, D. Kip, “Surface relief gratings in self-developing photopolymer films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 17–23 (1998).

Kumar, J.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

Lemelin, G.

Lessard, R. A.

G. Manivannan, G. Lemelin, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Computer-generated holograms on a metal ion-doped polymer system: contact copying,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3478–3481 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, D. Kip, “Surface relief gratings in self-developing photopolymer films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 17–23 (1998).

D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).

Li, L.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lougnot, D.-J.

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, S. Calixto, D.-J. Lougnot, “Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 787–793 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).

Mack, C. A.

C. A. Mack, “Development of positive photoresists,” J. Elec. Soc. 143, 148–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Manivannan, G.

Mashev, L.

L. Mashev, S. Tonchev, “Formation of holographic diffraction gratings in photoresist,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 143–149 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mau, A. W.

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).

Mendoza-Santoyo, F.

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).

Millul, E.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, “Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sisakian, I. N.

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

Sojfer, V. A.

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

V. S. Solovjev, Y. B. Boiko, V. A. Sojfer, “Computer-generated holographic optical elements on photopolymers,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 248–258 (1994).

Solovjev, V. S.

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, S. Calixto, D.-J. Lougnot, “Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 787–793 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Solovjev, Y. B. Boiko, V. A. Sojfer, “Computer-generated holographic optical elements on photopolymers,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 248–258 (1994).

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

Tgran, V. G.

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, S.

L. Mashev, S. Tonchev, “Formation of holographic diffraction gratings in photoresist,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 143–149 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J.-F.

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

V. Weiss, E. Millul, “Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zaidi, S. H.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

L. Mashev, S. Tonchev, “Formation of holographic diffraction gratings in photoresist,” Appl. Phys. A 26, 143–149 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Weiss, E. Millul, “Grating microstructures in photoactive polymers by laser interference patterns,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 293–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Elec. Soc. (1)

C. A. Mack, “Development of positive photoresists,” J. Elec. Soc. 143, 148–152 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

V. G. Tgran, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

Y. B. Boiko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, V. S. Solovjev, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. SPIE1238, 253–257 (1991).

D. Kip, L. Glabasnia, R. M. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, “Self-developing photopolymer system with ultraviolet sensitivity,” in Precision Plastic Optics for Optical Storage, Display, Imaging, and Communications, W. F. Frank, ed., Proc. SPIE3135, 141–146 (1997).

R. Beaulieu, R. A. Lessard, M. Bolte, D. Kip, “Surface relief gratings in self-developing photopolymer films,” in Holographic Materials IV, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3294, 17–23 (1998).

Y. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, A. W. Mau, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, D.-J. Lougnot, “CO2 laser diffractive optics fabrication on photopolymer and performance evaluation,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 271–278 (1994).

V. S. Solovjev, Y. B. Boiko, V. A. Sojfer, “Computer-generated holographic optical elements on photopolymers,” in Photopolymers and Applications in Holography, Optical Data, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE2042, 248–258 (1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: The beam of a He–Ne laser is focused onto a polymer film, which is mounted on a computer-controlled xy stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface deformations induced on a photopolymer film by scanning it with different velocities v ranging from 0.2 to 20 mm/s relative to the spot of a focused laser beam (P = 2 µW).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Height of surface reliefs induced on photopolymer films as a function of the recording laser beam power (scanning velocity v = 1 mm/s).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface-relief profiles recorded with different scanning densities ranging from 4 to 20 lines/mm (v = 20 mm/s and P = 20 µW).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface profile of a blazed grating.

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