Abstract

An extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation source near the 13-nm wavelength generated in a small (1.1 J) pinch plasma is presented. The ignition of the plasma occurs in a pseudosparklike electrode geometry, which allows for omitting a switch between the storage capacity and the electrode system and for low inductive coupling of the electrically stored energy to the plasma. Thus energies of only a few joules are sufficient to create current pulses in the range of several kiloamperes, which lead to a compression and a heating of the plasmas to electron densities of more than 1017 cm-3 and temperatures of several tens of electron volts, which is necessary for emission in the EUV range. As an example, the emission spectrum of an oxygen plasma in the 11–18-nm range is presented. Transitions of beryllium- and lithium-like oxygen ions can be identified. Current waveform and time-resolved measurements of the EUV emission are discussed. In initial experiments a repetitive operation at nearly 0.2 kHz could be demonstrated. Additionally, the broadband emission of a xenon plasma generated in a 2.2-J discharge is presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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1998

1997

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Klosner, H. A. Bender, W. T. Silfvast, J. J. Rocca, “Intense plasma discharge source at 13.5 nm for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 34–36 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

S. Larigaldi, “Study of the breakdown phase in a pseudospark switch: Part I—Basis experiments and crude model,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 362–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufi, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, M. C. Richardson, “Characterization of a flat-field grazing-incidence XUV spectrometer,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

1964

L. L. House, “Ionisation equilibrium of the elements from H to Fe,” Astrophys. J. (Suppl. VII) 81, 307–328 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1906

M. Toepler, “Zur Kenntnis der Gesetze der Gleitfunkenentladung,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 21, 193 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Alford, C. S.

Andreev, S. S.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bender, H. A.

Beouf, J.

J. Beouf, L. Pitchford, “Pseudospark discharges via computer simulation,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 286–296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K. W.

Bijkerk, F.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R. M.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blackburn, J.

Bokor, J.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. A.

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P.

Ceglio, N. M.

Christiansen, J.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Costello, J.

Döllinger, S.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eichner, L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eidmann, K.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, M. C. Richardson, “Characterization of a flat-field grazing-incidence XUV spectrometer,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frank, K.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Görtler, A.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gregus, J.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

Haney, S. J.

Hawryluk, A. M.

Heine, F.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herleb, U.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

House, L. L.

L. L. House, “Ionisation equilibrium of the elements from H to Fe,” Astrophys. J. (Suppl. VII) 81, 307–328 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Insam, S.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, V.

Klosner, M. A.

Kortright, J. B.

Koster, N. B.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalewicz, R.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, S.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

Larigaldi, S.

S. Larigaldi, “Study of the breakdown phase in a pseudospark switch: Part I—Basis experiments and crude model,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 362–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mager, S.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Makowiecki, D. M.

Malinowski, M. E.

Mansfield, W. M.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McGeoch, M.

McWhirter, R. W. P.

R. W. P. McWhirter, “Spectral intensities,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone, S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 201–264.

Mehr, T.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naweed, A.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neff, W.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, G.

Pitchford, L.

J. Beouf, L. Pitchford, “Pseudospark discharges via computer simulation,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 286–296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Yu. Ya.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polster, A.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prucker, U.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raab, E. L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, M. C. Richardson, “Characterization of a flat-field grazing-incidence XUV spectrometer,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Salashchenko, N. N.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schlaug, M.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schriever, G.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwanda, W.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, M. C. Richardson, “Characterization of a flat-field grazing-incidence XUV spectrometer,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwandner, A.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shamov, E. A.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

M. A. Klosner, W. T. Silfvast, “Intense xenon capillary discharge extreme-ultraviolet in the 10–16-nm-wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1609–1611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Klosner, H. A. Bender, W. T. Silfvast, J. J. Rocca, “Intense plasma discharge source at 13.5 nm for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 34–36 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skulina, K. M.

Soufi, R.

Stulen, R. H.

Sugar, J.

Szeto, L. H.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tech, J. L.

Tennant, D. M.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D. A.

Tkotz, R.

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toepler, M.

M. Toepler, “Zur Kenntnis der Gesetze der Gleitfunkenentladung,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 21, 193 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Voorma, H.-J.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewitz, W. K.

White, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, L. A. Brown, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewitz, “Diffraction-limited soft-x-ray projection imaging using a laser plasma source,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1557–1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zuev, S. Yu.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)

M. Toepler, “Zur Kenntnis der Gesetze der Gleitfunkenentladung,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 21, 193 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J. (Suppl. VII)

L. L. House, “Ionisation equilibrium of the elements from H to Fe,” Astrophys. J. (Suppl. VII) 81, 307–328 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

J. Beouf, L. Pitchford, “Pseudospark discharges via computer simulation,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 286–296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Tkotz, A. Görtler, J. Christiansen, S. Döllinger, K. Frank, F. Heine, U. Herleb, S. Insam, R. Kowalewicz, T. Mehr, A. Polster, U. Prucker, M. Schlaug, A. Schwandner, “Pseudospark switches—technological aspects and applications,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 309–317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Larigaldi, “Study of the breakdown phase in a pseudospark switch: Part I—Basis experiments and crude model,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 362–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 µm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, M. C. Richardson, “Characterization of a flat-field grazing-incidence XUV spectrometer,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, F. Bijkerk, Yu. Ya. Platonov, S. Yu. Zuev, S. S. Andreev, E. A. Shamov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Multilayer coated reflective optics for extreme UV lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 27, 235–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

G. Schriever, R. Lebert, A. Naweed, S. Mager, W. Neff, S. Kraft, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, “Calibration of charge coupled devices and a pinhole transmission grating to be used as elements of a soft x-ray spectrograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3301–3306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. W. P. McWhirter, “Spectral intensities,” in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques, R. H. Huddlestone, S. L. Leonard, eds. (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 201–264.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the electrode system. The electrodes are integrated in a storage capacitor made by two opposing disks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectrum of an oxygen plasma (CCD camera readout). The indicated transitions of beryllium- and lithium-like ions are listed separately in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial profile of the lithium-like 2p–4d transition at 13 nm. Dotted curve, measured profile. Solid line, fit of the profile with a Gaussian distribution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current pulse (dI/dt) and the respective EUV emission (lower curve) recorded with a fast photodiode in combination with a 1-µm beryllium filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured dI/dt signal (dotted curve) and the respective simulation (solid curve) based on a damped oscillating circuit with varying inductance that is due to the plasma dynamics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Repetitive operation at 0.2 kHz. Solid curve, charging voltage of the storage capacity. Dotted curve, EUV diode signal, which is electronically prolonged.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Emission spectrum of xenon behind a 150-nm silicon nitride window. Transitions of at least ten-times ionized xenon (Xe xi) can be identified.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transitions Appearing in the Oxygen Spectrum Shown in Fig. 1a

Equations (1)

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L0+Lptd2Qdt2+Rpt+dLptdtdQdt+QC=0.

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