Abstract

We have developed a compact dispersion-free TG (transient-grating) FROG (frequency-resolved optical gating) by utilizing a mask that separates the input beam into three distinct beams focused into fused silica to create the FROG signal. Two of the beams are reflected off the same set of mirrors to ensure identical optical paths, eliminating the difficulty in establishing zero time delay between the beams. In addition, the use of only reflective optics avoids material dispersion in the FROG except for the mixing crystal. This TG FROG is capable of operating with an intensity of 1 × 1011 W/cm2 and has resolutions less than 0.5 and 1.3 fs for 25- and 10-fs input pulses, respectively.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993); B. Kohler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483–485 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823–825 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595–1608 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. N. Sweester, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 22, 519–521 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Eichler, P. Gunther, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Versluis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four-wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3289–3295 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Li, G. N. Gibson, “Flexible aberration-free multipass amplifier and compressor for ultrashort-pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2404–2409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); T. Sharp-Clement, A. J. Taylor, D. J. Kane, “Single-shot measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort laser pulses in the violet,” Opt. Lett. 20, 70–72 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (3)

Chandler, D. W.

DeLong, K. W.

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunther, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Gibson, G. N.

Gunther, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunther, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Li, M.

Meijer, G.

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunther, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Sweester, J. N.

Trebino, R.

Versluis, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993); T. Sharp-Clement, A. J. Taylor, D. J. Kane, “Single-shot measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort laser pulses in the violet,” Opt. Lett. 20, 70–72 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunther, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TG FROG configuration. Beams 2 and 3 are vertically separated. M1 and M4 and M2 and M3 form two pairs of retroreflectors with the inner pair (M2 and M3) on a motorized translation stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Input and output mask specifications for DFWM. The k i vector corresponds to the ith beam. The input beam is 10 mm × 8 mm and the input mask holes are 1 mm in diameter with a 2-mm center-to-center separation. The output mask hole is 1 mm in diameter and is positioned at the image plane of the input mask.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DFWM FROG signal at zero time delay with a cubic fit. At a time delay of 333 fs, there is no temporal overlap of the fixed and delayed beams. The only signal arises from self-phase modulation of the beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FROG trace of a near-transform-limited pulse along with its retrieved intensity and phase in the time domain showing a pulse duration of 35 fs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FROG trace of a linearly chirped pulse along with its retrieved intensity and phase in the time domain showing a pulse duration of 50 fs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FROG trace of a pair of near-transform-limited pulses separated by 100 fs along with its retrieved intensity and phase in the time domain.

Equations (5)

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tmeasured=tactual2+tblur2.
Ichoice_1ω, τ  - E1tE2*t-τE3texpiωtdt2,
Ichoice_2ω, τ  - E1t-τE2*tE3texpiωtdt2=- E1t-τ|E2t|2expiωtdt2,
dωΔω=dtΔt,
dω=ΔωNΔt,  dt=ΔtNΔω.

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