Abstract

Multiple-field-of-view (MFOV) secondary-polarization lidar signals are used to calculate the particle-size density distribution (PSD) at the base of a cloud. At the cloud base, multiple scattering is weak and single backscattering is predominant by many orders of magnitude. Because secondary polarization is a direct measure of multiple scattering, it is therefore advantageous to use secondary polarization. A mathematical relation among the PSD, the lidar fields of view, the scattering angles, and the angular depolarization is derived to facilitate use of secondary polarization. The model is supported by experimental MFOV lidar measurements carried out in a controlled environment, and its limitations and restrictions are discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. D. H. Pollock, Countermeasure Systems, Vol. 7 of The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1993).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

G. Roy, L. C. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallée, “Estimation of cloud droplet size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view lidar returns,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3404–3415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

M. Heuner, K. Leschonski, “Results obtained with a new instrument for the measurement of particle size distributions from diffraction patterns,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 2, 7–13 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Allen, R. J.

Allen, T.

T. Allen, Particle Size Measurement (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1981).

Bastille, C.

G. Roy, L. C. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallée, “Estimation of cloud droplet size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view lidar returns,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3404–3415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benayahu, Y.

Ben-David, A.

Bissonnette, L. C.

G. Roy, L. C. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallée, “Estimation of cloud droplet size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view lidar returns,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3404–3415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L. R.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Carswell, A. I.

Cohen, A.

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, “Practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2464–2472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Eloranta, “Calculation of doubly scattered lidar returns,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc., 1972).

Fastig, S.

Greenleaves, J.

Heuner, M.

M. Heuner, K. Leschonski, “Results obtained with a new instrument for the measurement of particle size distributions from diffraction patterns,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 2, 7–13 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hodkinson, J. R.

Hutt, D. L.

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

Leschonski, K.

M. Heuner, K. Leschonski, “Results obtained with a new instrument for the measurement of particle size distributions from diffraction patterns,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 2, 7–13 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. R.

Petrilla, R. L.

Platt, C. M. R.

R. J. Allen, C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar for multiple backscattering and depolarization observation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3193–3199 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, D. H.

D. H. Pollock, Countermeasure Systems, Vol. 7 of The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1993).

Roy, G.

G. Roy, L. C. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallée, “Estimation of cloud droplet size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view lidar returns,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3404–3415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, H. Zhao, “Lidar multiple scattering in water droplet clouds: toward an improved treatment,” Opt. Rev. 2, 394–400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, R. L. Petrilla, “Lidar depolarization from multiple scattering in marine stratus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1450–1459 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, “Models of aerosols, clouds and precipitation for atmospheric propagation studies,” in Atmospheric Propagation in the UV, Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related System Aspects, AGARD Conf. Proc.454, 1–5 (1989), paper 15.

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977).

Vallée, G.

G. Roy, L. C. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallée, “Estimation of cloud droplet size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view lidar returns,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3404–3415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Zhao, H.

K. Sassen, H. Zhao, “Lidar multiple scattering in water droplet clouds: toward an improved treatment,” Opt. Rev. 2, 394–400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometer observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1191–1204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Roy, L. C. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallée, “Estimation of cloud droplet size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view lidar returns,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3404–3415 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Sassen, H. Zhao, “Lidar multiple scattering in water droplet clouds: toward an improved treatment,” Opt. Rev. 2, 394–400 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (1)

M. Heuner, K. Leschonski, “Results obtained with a new instrument for the measurement of particle size distributions from diffraction patterns,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 2, 7–13 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

D. H. Pollock, Countermeasure Systems, Vol. 7 of The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1993).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977).

E. W. Eloranta, “Calculation of doubly scattered lidar returns,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc., 1972).

E. P. Shettle, “Models of aerosols, clouds and precipitation for atmospheric propagation studies,” in Atmospheric Propagation in the UV, Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related System Aspects, AGARD Conf. Proc.454, 1–5 (1989), paper 15.

T. Allen, Particle Size Measurement (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1981).

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