Abstract

The influence of multiple scattering on the retrieval of extinction coefficients of tropospheric aerosols from ground-based backscatter lidar measurements is numerically modeled. In a first step, lidar returns are computed by means of a Monte Carlo code for model atmospheres with different aerosol types and different extinction coefficient profiles. In so doing, synthetic lidar signals with and without multiple scattering can be simulated. In a second step, both types of signal are inverted by the most frequently used analytical solution, which, however, is based on the single-scatter assumption. From a comparison of the results, the error of the retrieved aerosol-extinction profiles can be quantitatively determined. It was found that the contribution of multiply scattered photons to the lidar signals is typically below 10% and never exceeds 20%. The relative errors of the retrieved aerosol-extinction profile in the planetary boundary layer are still smaller; they were determined to be less than 3% for all aerosol types, even for extinction coefficients as large as 3.9 km-1. Thus, for ground-based lidar measurements and typical meteorological conditions, errors caused by neglecting multiple scattering are by far less significant than other errors in lidar data evaluation.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. A. Kovalev, “Lidar measurement of the vertical aerosol extinction profiles with range-dependent backscatter-to-extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6053–6065 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Weinman, “Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1763–1771 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Spinhirne, “Lidar clear atmosphere multiple scattering dependence on receiver range,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2467–2468 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kaestner, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios: comment,” Appl. Opt. 25, 833–835 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  17. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto, Toronto, 1958).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1986

1985

1982

1981

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, “Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1763–1771 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Benayahu, Y.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L. R.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Browell, E. V.

Bruscaglioni, P.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Darbinjan, R. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Egert, S.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Elepov, B. S.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Flesia, C.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Ismaelli, A.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Kaestner, M.

Kargin, B. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Katsev, I. L.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kerscher, M.

M. Kerscher, H. Krasting, U. G. Oppel, “Retrieval of environmental parameters from multiply scattered return signals of ground-based and airborne LIDAR’s,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weher, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 624–635 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

Kleinman, M.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

Koepke, P.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, V. A.

Krasting, H.

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

M. Kerscher, H. Krasting, U. G. Oppel, “Retrieval of environmental parameters from multiply scattered return signals of ground-based and airborne LIDAR’s,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weher, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 624–635 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kunkel, K. E.

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, G. J.

Marchuk, G. I.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto, Toronto, 1958).

Mikhailov, G. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Nazaraliev, M. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Noormohammadian, M.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oppel, U.

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

Oppel, U. G.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kerscher, H. Krasting, U. G. Oppel, “Retrieval of environmental parameters from multiply scattered return signals of ground-based and airborne LIDAR’s,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weher, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 624–635 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Polonsky, I. N.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Renger, W.

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

Sasano, Y.

Schult, I.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwendimann, P.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

Starkov, A. V.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, “Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1763–1771 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

Winker, D. M.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

Zaccanti, G.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

L. R. Bissonnette, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Cohen, Y. Benayahu, M. Kleinman, S. Egert, C. Flesia, P. Schwendimann, A. V. Starkov, M. Noormohammadian, U. G. Oppel, D. M. Winker, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, I. N. Polonsky, “LIDAR multiple scattering from clouds,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 355–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package opac,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

K. E. Kunkel, J. A. Weinman, “Monte Carlo analysis of multiply scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1772–1781 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, “Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1763–1771 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Remote sounding of high clouds. III: Monte Carlo calculations of multiple-scattered lidar returns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 156–167 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Kerscher, H. Krasting, U. G. Oppel, “Retrieval of environmental parameters from multiply scattered return signals of ground-based and airborne LIDAR’s,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weher, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 624–635 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, M. A. Nazaraliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, U. Oppel, H. Krasting, W. Renger, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, “Cirrus measurements from a spaceborne lidar: influence of multiple scattering,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 189–192.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere (University of Toronto, Toronto, 1958).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Upper left, unity normalized scattering phase functions P(θ) at a wavelength of 532 nm for the seven aerosol types. The relative humidity is 60% for the desert aerosol and 95% for all other aerosol types. Lower left, same as upper left but for relative humidities of 30% (desert aerosol) and 50% (all other aerosol types). Right, vertical profiles of the single-scattering albedo ω0 for the seven different aerosol types.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ratio of multiply scattered photons N MS to singly scattered photons N SS for the backscatter lidar signals from seven different aerosol types and a visibility of 5 km within the PBL: cont., continental; mar., maritime (b) Same as (a) but for the desert and urban aerosol types for different visibilities (VIS) as indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Multiple-scattering factor η(R) [see Eq. (6)] of the aerosol-extinction profiles retrieved from Klett’s far-end solution with and without consideration of multiple scattering for the desert aerosol type and different visibilities in the PBL. (b) Same as (a) but for the urban aerosol type.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Multiple-scattering factor η(R) [see Eq. (6)] of the retrieved aerosol-extinction profiles for visibilities of 2 and 5 km and an altitude R F of the boundary value of 1.5 and 2.1 km, respectively, for the desert aerosol type. (b) Same as (a) but for the urban aerosol type.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of the Unity Normalized Scattering Phase Functions at 532 nm (see Fig. 1, left panel) for Scattering Angles of 0° and 180°a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NSSR=CN0R-2αARSA-1R+βMR×exp-2 0RαAr+αMrdr.
SAR=αARβAR.
αAR=-SARβMR+ZRQR
ZR=SARR2NSSR×exp2 RRFSArβMr-αMrdr,
QR=SARFRF2NSSRFSARFβMRF+αARF+2 RRF Zrdr. 
NSSR+NMSR=CN0R-2ηRαARSA-1R+βMR×exp-2 0RηrαAr+αMrdr.

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