Abstract

Measurements of the spatial uniformity of Hamamatsu H5783-06 photosensor modules were performed by the flying spot method. The results were used to simulate the influence of the photomultiplier tube on a lidar signal. A simple method for improving the spatial uniformity is proposed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 6, pp. 223–236.
  2. L. Shoulepnikoff, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, V. Mitev, “Tropospheric air pollution monitoring: lidar,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 4873–4909.
  3. F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).
  4. R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Swinesson, A. Apituley “RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar,” (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, May1991).
  6. H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. “Metal package photomultiplier tubes R5600 series.” (Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., Electron Tube Center, Shizuoka 438-01, Japan, April1994).
  8. P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.
  9. P. S. Takhar, “Resolution and cathode uniformity in scintillation counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 438–448 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Frazer-Mitchell, A. G. Wright, “Contribution of photocathode nonuniformity to energy resolution in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 288, 429–438 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. C. A. Veloso, C. A. N. Conde, “Incidence angle dependence of the output response uniformity of photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 434–437 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).
  13. B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).
  14. V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

1997

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

1996

J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).

1994

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. F. C. A. Veloso, C. A. N. Conde, “Incidence angle dependence of the output response uniformity of photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 434–437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Frazer-Mitchell, A. G. Wright, “Contribution of photocathode nonuniformity to energy resolution in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 288, 429–438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1967

P. S. Takhar, “Resolution and cathode uniformity in scintillation counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 438–448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

Apituley, A.

J. A. Swinesson, A. Apituley “RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar,” (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, May1991).

Atsumi, A.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, P.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Cairo, F.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

Calpini, B.

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

L. Shoulepnikoff, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, V. Mitev, “Tropospheric air pollution monitoring: lidar,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 4873–4909.

Centurioni, S.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

Conde, C. A. N.

J. F. C. A. Veloso, C. A. N. Conde, “Incidence angle dependence of the output response uniformity of photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 434–437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Congeduti, F.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

Di Donfrancesco, G.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

dos Santos, J. M. F.

J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).

Frazer-Mitchell, J.

J. Frazer-Mitchell, A. G. Wright, “Contribution of photocathode nonuniformity to energy resolution in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 288, 429–438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, Y.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jeanneret, F.

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

Kuebler, J.

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

Kyushima, H.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, J. A. M.

J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).

Matsuura, H.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 6, pp. 223–236.

Mitev, V.

L. Shoulepnikoff, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, V. Mitev, “Tropospheric air pollution monitoring: lidar,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 4873–4909.

Morgado, R. E.

J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).

Nagura, K.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oba, K.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pettifer, R. E. W.

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Poli, M.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

Quaglia, P.

V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

Reitebuch, O.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Sathya, V.

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

Schäfer, K.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Shoulepnikoff, L.

L. Shoulepnikoff, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, V. Mitev, “Tropospheric air pollution monitoring: lidar,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 4873–4909.

Simeonov, V.

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

Stichternath, A.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Suzuki, S.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swinesson, J. A.

J. A. Swinesson, A. Apituley “RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar,” (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, May1991).

Takeuchi, J.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takhar, P. S.

P. S. Takhar, “Resolution and cathode uniformity in scintillation counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 438–448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.

van den Bergh, H.

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

L. Shoulepnikoff, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, V. Mitev, “Tropospheric air pollution monitoring: lidar,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 4873–4909.

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).

J. F. C. A. Veloso, C. A. N. Conde, “Incidence angle dependence of the output response uniformity of photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 434–437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wright, A. G.

J. Frazer-Mitchell, A. G. Wright, “Contribution of photocathode nonuniformity to energy resolution in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 288, 429–438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, H.

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chimia

B. Calpini, V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, J. Kuebler, V. Sathya, H. van den Bergh, “Ozone lidar as an analytical tool in effective air pollution management: the Geneva 96 campaign,” Chimia 51, 700–704 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

J. F. C. A. Veloso, C. A. N. Conde, “Incidence angle dependence of the output response uniformity of photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 434–437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. F. dos Santos, J. F. C. A. Veloso, J. A. M. Lopes, R. E. Morgado, “A simple method to improve the spatial uniformity of venetian-blind photomultiplier tubes,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1335–1340 (1996).

H. Kyushima, Y. Hasegawa, A. Atsumi, K. Nagura, H. Yokota, M. Ito, J. Takeuchi, K. Oba, H. Matsuura, S. Suzuki, “Photomultiplier tube of new dynode configuration,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 725–729 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Takhar, “Resolution and cathode uniformity in scintillation counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 438–448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

J. Frazer-Mitchell, A. G. Wright, “Contribution of photocathode nonuniformity to energy resolution in NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 288, 429–438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

F. Cairo, F. Congeduti, M. Poli, S. Centurioni, G. Di Donfrancesco, “A survey of the signal-induced noise in photomultiplier detection of wide dynamics luminous signals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3275–3280 (1966).

Other

V. Simeonov, F. Jeanneret, P. Quaglia, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The EPFL UV Ozone DIAL: results and upgradings,” in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA CP-1998-207671/PT1 (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., 1998), pp. 399–402.

“Metal package photomultiplier tubes R5600 series.” (Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., Electron Tube Center, Shizuoka 438-01, Japan, April1994).

P. Brenner, O. Reitebuch, K. Schäfer, T. Trickl, A. Stichternath, “A novel mobile vertical-sounding system for ozone studies in lower troposphere,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Berlin, Springer, Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 383–386.

J. A. Swinesson, A. Apituley “RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar,” (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, May1991).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 6, pp. 223–236.

L. Shoulepnikoff, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, V. Mitev, “Tropospheric air pollution monitoring: lidar,” in Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1998), pp. 4873–4909.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Anode spatial uniformity of the Hamamatsu H5783-06 photosensor module measured with a resolution of 200 µm. The values were normalized to the average of the central part of the photocathode (2 × 2 mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the H5783-06 photosensor as viewed through the photocathode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Anode spatial uniformity from Fig. 1 with resolution enhanced ten times by two-dimensional interpolation (20 × 20 µm). A model image of the probing laser beam with a range resolution of 15 m (sequence of black circles) and the receiving telescope field stop (violet circle).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lidar simulation results based on the experimental PMT data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular dependence of η(R, φ) on angle φ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Anode spatial uniformity of the photosensor module (top) and the corresponding layout of the optical elements (bottom) with (a) an additional 3-mm-thick surface diffuser and (b) the same diffuser plus a lens with a 16-mm focal length.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SR, φ=ARexp-2αRR2 ηR, φ,

Metrics