Abstract

We formed planar waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals by megaelectron volt He-ion implantation. The dark modes of both waveguides are measured and their refractive-index profiles are described according to the parameterized index profile reconstruction method. The extraordinary indices of both ion-implanted waveguides exhibit quite different profiles. We compare the thermal stability of barriers in ion-implanted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides by annealing at different temperatures. The results show that the barrier in a LiTaO3 planar waveguide has higher thermal stability than that in a LiNbO3 waveguide. The experiments also show that annealing at a temperature higher than 400 °C results in recrystallization of the barrier.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Kip, E. Kratzig, “Anisotropic four-wave mixing in planar LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1563–1565 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodel, “Coupled-wave analysis of holographic storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Matthews, A. R. Michelson, “Instabilities in annealed proton exchange waveguides in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5310–5317 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, “Optical waveguide layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 326–328 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Ulrich, R. Torge, “Measurement of thin film parameter with a prism coupler,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2901–2908 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Noda, T. Saku, N. Uchida, “Fabrication of optical waveguiding layer in LiTaO3 by Cu diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308–310 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Jackel, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. Kip, E. Kratzig, “Anisotropic four-wave mixing in planar LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1563–1565 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Michelson, “Instabilities in annealed proton exchange waveguides in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5310–5317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. L. Jackel, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

1974

J. Noda, T. Saku, N. Uchida, “Fabrication of optical waveguiding layer in LiTaO3 by Cu diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308–310 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. Ulrich, R. Torge, “Measurement of thin film parameter with a prism coupler,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2901–2908 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, “Optical waveguide layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 326–328 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodel, “Coupled-wave analysis of holographic storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Amodel, J. J.

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodel, “Coupled-wave analysis of holographic storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Breteau, J. M.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, Ch.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, J. R.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, “Optical waveguide layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 326–328 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1994).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fleuster, M.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Godefroy, G.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

Hertel, P.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, H.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, “Optical waveguide layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 326–328 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

Kratzig, E.

D. Kip, E. Kratzig, “Anisotropic four-wave mixing in planar LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1563–1565 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lallier, E.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, P. J.

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Michelson, “Instabilities in annealed proton exchange waveguides in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5310–5317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Michelson, A. R.

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Michelson, “Instabilities in annealed proton exchange waveguides in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5310–5317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, T. Saku, N. Uchida, “Fabrication of optical waveguiding layer in LiTaO3 by Cu diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308–310 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Saku, T.

J. Noda, T. Saku, N. Uchida, “Fabrication of optical waveguiding layer in LiTaO3 by Cu diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308–310 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodel, “Coupled-wave analysis of holographic storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thevenard, P.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, N.

J. Noda, T. Saku, N. Uchida, “Fabrication of optical waveguiding layer in LiTaO3 by Cu diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308–310 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

White, J. M.

Wirl, K.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Noda, T. Saku, N. Uchida, “Fabrication of optical waveguiding layer in LiTaO3 by Cu diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308–310 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, “Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607–608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, “Second-harmonic generation of blue light in a LiTaO3 waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732–2734 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, “Optical waveguide layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 326–328 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. J. Li, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, J. M. Breteau, M. Papuchon, J. P. Pocholle, “Optical waveguide fabrication in neodymium-doped lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 24, 914–915 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, P. Hertel, H. Hesse, E. Kratzig, G. Godefroy, “Proton implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, KnbO3 and BaTiO3,” Ferroelectrics 128, 13–18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Michelson, “Instabilities in annealed proton exchange waveguides in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5310–5317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Staebler, J. J. Amodel, “Coupled-wave analysis of holographic storage in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1042–1049 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Gunter, M. Fleuster, Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index profile of the 2.8-MeV He-ion-implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide. The dose rate is 1.5 × 1016 ions/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index profile of the 2.8-MeV He-ion-implanted LiTaO3 planar waveguide. The dose rate is 1.5 × 1016 ions/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguide without annealing and after annealing at 200 °C for 60, 150, and 240 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguide after annealing at 300 °C, 350 °C, 385 °C for 60 min compared with the profile after annealing at 200 °C for 240 min.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extraordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguide before and after annealing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiTaO3 waveguide without annealing and after annealing at 200 °C for 60, 150, and 240 min.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiTaO3 waveguide after annealing at 300 °C, 350 °C, 385 °C for 60 min compared with the profile after annealing at 200 °C for 240 min.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extraordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiTaO3 waveguide without annealing and after annealing at 200 °C for 60 and 150 min.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extraordinary refractive-index profile of the He-ion-implanted LiTaO3 waveguide after annealing at 300 °C, 350 °C, 385 °C for 60 min compared with the profile after annealing at 200 °C for 240 min.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Dark Modes after Annealing

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