Abstract

The application of pulsed photoacoustics to the study of liquids at pressures of up to 350 bars is discussed. The design and development of an in-line sensor for the subsea monitoring of crude oil concentrations in water is reported. Crude oil detection sensitivities at parts per million concentrations were achieved with prototype instrumentation. A comparison of experimental results and a theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of the pulsed photoacoustic response from water is outlined. The results demonstrate that existing models that describe pulsed photoacoustic generation in liquids are applicable to high-pressure conditions.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. M. Park, K. B. Shin, “Optoacoustic detection of a liquid kinetic-cooling effect in the liquid phase,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7653–7655 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Gondal, “Laser photoacoustic spectrometer for remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3195–3201 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. G. Calasso, V. Funtov, M. W. Sigrist, “Analysis of isotopic CO2 mixtures by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3212–3216 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Dam, P. E. Andersen, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, “Determination of tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance profiles by multivariate calibration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 772–778 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 415–425 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Lahmann, H. J. Ludewig, H. Welling, “Opto-acoustic trace analysis in liquids with the frequency modulated beam of an argon ion laser,” J. Anal. Chem. 49, 549–551 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.
  9. S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Hodgson, H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, K. M. Quan, Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications (Ellis Horwood, London, 1992), pp. 407–412.
  14. J. P. Ray, F. R. Engelhardt, Produced Water: Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions (Plenum, New York, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. M. Lai, K. Young, “Theory of the pulsed optoacoustic technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000–2007 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Commun. 44, 267–272 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Sullivan, A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 437–441 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. R. Collins, “The effect of high pressure on the near infrared absorption spectrum of certain liquids,” Phys. Rev. 39, 305–310 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Haar, J. S. Gallagher, G. S. Kell, NBS/NRC Steam Tables (Hemisphere, New York, 1984).
  21. R. S. Bradley, High Pressure Physics and Chemistry (Academic, New York, 1963).
  22. G. S. Kino, Acoustic Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

1999 (1)

J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Dam, P. E. Andersen, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, “Determination of tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance profiles by multivariate calibration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 772–778 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (4)

K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 415–425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Park, K. B. Shin, “Optoacoustic detection of a liquid kinetic-cooling effect in the liquid phase,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7653–7655 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. Sullivan, A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Commun. 44, 267–272 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. M. Lai, K. Young, “Theory of the pulsed optoacoustic technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000–2007 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

J. R. Collins, “The effect of high pressure on the near infrared absorption spectrum of certain liquids,” Phys. Rev. 39, 305–310 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, P. E.

Ashton, H. S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

Binnie, T. D.

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, D.

H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. S.

R. S. Bradley, High Pressure Physics and Chemistry (Academic, New York, 1963).

Calasso, I. G.

Cha, H.

K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Christison, G. B.

H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, K. M. Quan, Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications (Ellis Horwood, London, 1992), pp. 407–412.

Collins, J. R.

J. R. Collins, “The effect of high pressure on the near infrared absorption spectrum of certain liquids,” Phys. Rev. 39, 305–310 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Dalgaard, T.

Dam, J. S.

Engelhardt, F. R.

J. P. Ray, F. R. Engelhardt, Produced Water: Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions (Plenum, New York, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, P. E.

Freeborn, S. S.

J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Funtov, V.

Gallagher, J. S.

L. Haar, J. S. Gallagher, G. S. Kell, NBS/NRC Steam Tables (Hemisphere, New York, 1984).

Gondal, M. A.

Greig, F.

J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haar, L.

L. Haar, J. S. Gallagher, G. S. Kell, NBS/NRC Steam Tables (Hemisphere, New York, 1984).

Hannigan, J.

J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heritier, J-M.

J-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Commun. 44, 267–272 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, P.

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, K. M. Quan, Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications (Ellis Horwood, London, 1992), pp. 407–412.

Johnston, E. M.

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kell, G. S.

L. Haar, J. S. Gallagher, G. S. Kell, NBS/NRC Steam Tables (Hemisphere, New York, 1984).

Kino, G. S.

G. S. Kino, Acoustic Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

Lahmann, W.

W. Lahmann, H. J. Ludewig, H. Welling, “Opto-acoustic trace analysis in liquids with the frequency modulated beam of an argon ion laser,” J. Anal. Chem. 49, 549–551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. M.

H. M. Lai, K. Young, “Theory of the pulsed optoacoustic technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000–2007 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, J.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

Ludewig, H. J.

W. Lahmann, H. J. Ludewig, H. Welling, “Opto-acoustic trace analysis in liquids with the frequency modulated beam of an argon ion laser,” J. Anal. Chem. 49, 549–551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacKenzie, H. A.

J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

P. Hodgson, H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, K. M. Quan, Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications (Ellis Horwood, London, 1992), pp. 407–412.

Park, S. M.

Quan, K. M.

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hodgson, H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, K. M. Quan, Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications (Ellis Horwood, London, 1992), pp. 407–412.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

Rae, P.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

Ray, J. P.

J. P. Ray, F. R. Engelhardt, Produced Water: Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions (Plenum, New York, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

Shin, K. B.

Sigrist, M. W.

I. G. Calasso, V. Funtov, M. W. Sigrist, “Analysis of isotopic CO2 mixtures by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3212–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 415–425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spiers, S.

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

Sullivan, B.

B. Sullivan, A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Suttie, R. A.

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Sullivan, A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I. A.

K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

W. Lahmann, H. J. Ludewig, H. Welling, “Opto-acoustic trace analysis in liquids with the frequency modulated beam of an argon ion laser,” J. Anal. Chem. 49, 549–551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

H. M. Lai, K. Young, “Theory of the pulsed optoacoustic technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000–2007 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Song, H. Cha, J. Lee, I. A. Veselovskii, “Application of optical parametric oscillators to photoacoustic studies in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 547–552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser-photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 415–425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

H. M. Lai, K. Young, “Theory of the pulsed optoacoustic technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000–2007 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Sullivan, A. C. Tam, “Profile of laser-produced acoustic pulse in a liquid,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 437–441 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Anal. Chem. (1)

W. Lahmann, H. J. Ludewig, H. Welling, “Opto-acoustic trace analysis in liquids with the frequency modulated beam of an argon ion laser,” J. Anal. Chem. 49, 549–551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Hannigan, F. Greig, S. S. Freeborn, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic system for the spectroscopy and monitoring of hydrocarbon liquids using stimulated Raman scattering in a silica fibre as a near-infrared source,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 93–99 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Commun. 44, 267–272 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. R. Collins, “The effect of high pressure on the near infrared absorption spectrum of certain liquids,” Phys. Rev. 39, 305–310 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, F. Greig, R. A. Suttie, H. A. MacKenzie, “A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3948–3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

P. Hodgson, K. M. Quan, H. A. MacKenzie, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, E. M. Johnston, F. Greig, T. D. Binnie, “Application of pulsed laser photoacoustic sensors in monitoring oil contamination in water,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 339–344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, P. Hodgson, D. Blanc, “A laser photoacoustic sensor for analyte detection in aqueous systems,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

P. Hodgson, H. A. MacKenzie, G. B. Christison, K. M. Quan, Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Bridging the Gap between Data Analysis and NIR Applications (Ellis Horwood, London, 1992), pp. 407–412.

J. P. Ray, F. R. Engelhardt, Produced Water: Technological/Environmental Issues and Solutions (Plenum, New York, 1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, Y. C. Shen, J. Lindberg, P. Rae, K. M. Quan, S. Spiers, “Blood glucose measurements by photoacoustics,” in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, and Therapeutic Laser Applications, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, J. A. Izatt, M. N. Ediger, eds., Vol. 22 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 156–159.

L. Haar, J. S. Gallagher, G. S. Kell, NBS/NRC Steam Tables (Hemisphere, New York, 1984).

R. S. Bradley, High Pressure Physics and Chemistry (Academic, New York, 1963).

G. S. Kino, Acoustic Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normal incidence acoustic transmission from water to stainless steel at 20 °C as a function of pressure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the laboratory high-pressure photoacoustic instrument for crude oil monitoring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the static sample high-pressure test rig.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of experimental and theoretical dependence of the pulsed photoacoustic response of distilled water at 20 °C with pressure relative to the response at 1 bar.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Trend in the photoacoustic response with crude oil concentration in water at various pressures.

Equations (4)

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Vr=kEoαβv1/2cpte3/2r1/2,
Z=ρv.
T=2Z1Z2+Z1,
VP  TPβPvP1/2cpP.

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