Abstract

We tested closure between in situ radiometric and absorption coefficient measurements by using a nearly backscattering-independent remote-sensing reflectance model that employs the remote-sensing reflectance at three wavelengths. We show that only a small error is introduced into the closure model when the proper functional relationships of f/ Q and the backscattering is taken to be a constant when using the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor wavelengths 443, 490, and 555 nm. A method of inverting the model to obtain the absorption coefficient by use of simple linear spectral relationships of the absorption coefficient is provided. The results of the model show that the independent measurements of reflectance and absorption obtain closure with a high degree of accuracy.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193–13,199 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “A method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1084–1093 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1976), Vol. 4.
  8. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,151 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  15. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplanktors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion,” Oceanography 11, 44–47 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from an in situ spectral absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion,” Oceanography 11, 44–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

1995 (5)

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193–13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplanktors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Campbell, W. E. Esaias, “Basis for spectral curvature algorithms in remote sensing of chlorophyll,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1084–1093 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y.

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplanktors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “A method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. S.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dana, D. R.

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “A method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donaghy, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doss, W.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, C. D.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from an in situ spectral absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “A method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maffione, R. A.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C.

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from an in situ spectral absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplanktors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Mueller, J. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “A method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “A method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion,” Oceanography 11, 44–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193–13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1976), Vol. 4.

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplanktors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C. C.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193–13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. H.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion,” Oceanography 11, 44–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193–13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from an in situ spectral absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghy, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (10)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical algorithm for light absorption by ocean water based on color,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, K. J. Voss, “Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193–13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: a comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143–13,151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplanktors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion,” Oceanography 11, 44–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from an in situ spectral absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1976), Vol. 4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contour of the backscattering triple ratio b br3 as a function of the shape of the particle backscattering η and the water-to-particle backscattering ratio at 490 nm (b bw /b bp ), computed with Eq. (9) and the wavelengths 443, 490, and 555 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triple ratio of the remote-sensing reflectance at 443, 490, and 555 nm determined from in situ radiometer measurements versus the triple ratio of the absorption coefficient at 443, 490, and 555 nm determined from in situ ac-9 measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optically weighted absorption coefficient at 490 nm versus the optically weighted absorption coefficient at 443 nm (filled diamonds) and 555 nm (asterisks) determined from ac-9 measurements. The linear regressions for each wavelength are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Predicted absorption coefficient at (a) 443, (b) 490, and (c) 555 nm based on the remote-sensing reflectance triple ratio and the absorption relationships at 443 and 555 nm [see Fig. 3 and Eq. (14)] versus the in situ measured absorption coefficient at each of the respective wavelengths.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Data Set Locations and Dates Consisting of 70 IOP and AOP Profilesa

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Table 2 Regression Results of the in situ Measured and Modeled Absorption Coefficientsa

Equations (16)

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Rλ=EuλEdλ=fλbbλaλ,
RrsλRλQλ=LuλEdλfλQλbbλaλ,
Rrs3λ1, λ2, λ3=Rrsλ1Rrsλ2Rrsλ2Rrsλ3fQλ1fQλ3fQλ22bbaλ1bbaλ3bbaλ22.
Rrs3λ1, λ2, λ3=Rrsλ1Rrsλ2Rrsλ2Rrsλ3bbaλ1bbaλ3bbaλ22.
Rrs3λ1, λ2, λ3=Rrsλ1Rrsλ2Rrsλ2Rrsλ3bbλ1bbλ3bb2λ2a2λ2aλ1aλ3.
bbr3=bbr3λ1, λ2, λ3=bbλ1bbλ3bb2λ2.
bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ,
bbwλ=bbwλrλλr-4.32, bbpλ=bbpλrλλr-η,
bbr3=bbwλ2λ1λ2-4.32+bbpλ2λ1λ2-4.32bbwλ2λ3λ2-η+bbpλ2λ3λ2-ηbbwλ2+bbpλ22.
bbr3=bbwbbp2λ1λ3λ22-4.32+bbwbbpλ1λ2-ηλ3λ2-4.32+λ1λ2-ηλ3λ2-4.32+λ1λ3λ22-ηbbwbbp+12.
bbλ, z=bbpλ, z+bbwλb˜bbpλ, z+0.5bwλ,
Rrs3λ1, λ2, λ3bbr3a2λ2aλ1aλ3.
Rrs3λ1, λ2, λ3bbr3a2λ2f1aλ2f3aλ2.
f1a490=a443=Aa490+B, f3a490=a555=Ca490+D,
a490=-AD+BC±AD+BC2-4AC-bbr3Rrs3BD1/22AC-bbr3Rrs3.
a=n=1N Hnann=1N Hn, with Hn=Lun-1Edn-1-LunEdnLun0Edn0.

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