Abstract

We demonstrate a new bottom antireflective coating (BARC) layer for ArF excimer laser lithography. The antireflective layer is composed of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) film, which is deposited by the conventional electron cyclotron resonance-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process. We obtain the appropriate HMDSO films for BARC layers by varying the gas-flow rate ratio of oxygen to HMDSO. Such a process has several advantages: high deposition rate, low process temperature, easy film removal, and reduced cost. Measured reflectances of less than 0.5% on both Al–Si and silicon crystal substrates have been achieved and agree well with the simulated reflectances. The swing effect is shown to be significantly reduced by addition of the HMDSO-based BARC layer.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Gargini, J. Glaze, O. Williams, “The SIA’s 1997 national technology roadmap for semiconductors,” Solid State Technol. 41, 73–76 (1998).
  2. J. R. Sheats, B. W. Smith, Microlithography Science and Technology, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998).
  3. C. M. Dai, S. H. Liu, “Rough polysilicon film as a high-performance antireflective layer for sub-half-micron photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6611–6614 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Mack, “Antireflective coatings,” Microlithogr. World 6(3), 29–30 (1997).
  5. J. Sturtevant, B. Roman, “Antireflection strategies for advanced photolithography,” Microlithogr. World 4(4), 13–21 (1995).
  6. Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Tomo, T. Tsumori, “Novel ARC optimization methodology for KrF excimer laser lithography at low K1 factor,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1674, 362–375 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. H. Jun, S. S. Han, K. S. Kim, J. S. Lee, Z. T. Jiang, B. S. Bae, K. No, D. W. Kim, H. Y. Kang, Y. B. Koh, “Titanium oxide film for the bottom antireflective layer in deep ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1482–1486 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Ogawa, A. Sekiguchi, N. Yoshizawa, “Advantages of a SiOxNy:H antireflective layer for ArF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 6360–6365 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an ECR plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210–L212 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. R. Alexander, R. D. Short, F. R. Jones, “An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation into the chemical structure of deposits formed from hexamethyldisiloxane/oxygen plasmas,” J. Mater. Sci. 31, 1879–1885 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. C. Paulick, “Inversion of normal-incidence (R, T) measurements to obtain n + ik for thin films,” Appl. Opt. 25, 562–564 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. A. Mack, “Swing curves,” Microlithogr. World 3(3), 23–25 (1994).

1998

P. Gargini, J. Glaze, O. Williams, “The SIA’s 1997 national technology roadmap for semiconductors,” Solid State Technol. 41, 73–76 (1998).

1997

C. A. Mack, “Antireflective coatings,” Microlithogr. World 6(3), 29–30 (1997).

T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Jun, S. S. Han, K. S. Kim, J. S. Lee, Z. T. Jiang, B. S. Bae, K. No, D. W. Kim, H. Y. Kang, Y. B. Koh, “Titanium oxide film for the bottom antireflective layer in deep ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1482–1486 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. R. Alexander, R. D. Short, F. R. Jones, “An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation into the chemical structure of deposits formed from hexamethyldisiloxane/oxygen plasmas,” J. Mater. Sci. 31, 1879–1885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, A. Sekiguchi, N. Yoshizawa, “Advantages of a SiOxNy:H antireflective layer for ArF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 6360–6365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Sturtevant, B. Roman, “Antireflection strategies for advanced photolithography,” Microlithogr. World 4(4), 13–21 (1995).

C. M. Dai, S. H. Liu, “Rough polysilicon film as a high-performance antireflective layer for sub-half-micron photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6611–6614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. A. Mack, “Swing curves,” Microlithogr. World 3(3), 23–25 (1994).

T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

1983

S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an ECR plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210–L212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M. R.

M. R. Alexander, R. D. Short, F. R. Jones, “An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation into the chemical structure of deposits formed from hexamethyldisiloxane/oxygen plasmas,” J. Mater. Sci. 31, 1879–1885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arzt, M.

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

Blaschta, F.

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dai, C. M.

C. M. Dai, S. H. Liu, “Rough polysilicon film as a high-performance antireflective layer for sub-half-micron photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6611–6614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engemann, J.

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gargini, P.

P. Gargini, J. Glaze, O. Williams, “The SIA’s 1997 national technology roadmap for semiconductors,” Solid State Technol. 41, 73–76 (1998).

Glaze, J.

P. Gargini, J. Glaze, O. Williams, “The SIA’s 1997 national technology roadmap for semiconductors,” Solid State Technol. 41, 73–76 (1998).

Gocho, T.

T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. S.

Jiang, Z. T.

Jones, F. R.

M. R. Alexander, R. D. Short, F. R. Jones, “An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation into the chemical structure of deposits formed from hexamethyldisiloxane/oxygen plasmas,” J. Mater. Sci. 31, 1879–1885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jun, B. H.

Kang, H. Y.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, K. S.

Kimura, M.

T. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Tomo, T. Tsumori, “Novel ARC optimization methodology for KrF excimer laser lithography at low K1 factor,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1674, 362–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kiuchi, M.

S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an ECR plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210–L212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koh, Y. B.

Korzec, D.

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krebig, E.

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Liu, S. H.

C. M. Dai, S. H. Liu, “Rough polysilicon film as a high-performance antireflective layer for sub-half-micron photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6611–6614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mack, C. A.

C. A. Mack, “Antireflective coatings,” Microlithogr. World 6(3), 29–30 (1997).

C. A. Mack, “Swing curves,” Microlithogr. World 3(3), 23–25 (1994).

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an ECR plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210–L212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mito, H.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muroyama, M.

T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
[CrossRef]

No, K.

Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, A. Sekiguchi, N. Yoshizawa, “Advantages of a SiOxNy:H antireflective layer for ArF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 6360–6365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Tomo, T. Tsumori, “Novel ARC optimization methodology for KrF excimer laser lithography at low K1 factor,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1674, 362–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, Y.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paulick, T. C.

Poll, U. H.

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochotzki, R.

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roman, B.

J. Sturtevant, B. Roman, “Antireflection strategies for advanced photolithography,” Microlithogr. World 4(4), 13–21 (1995).

Sato, J.

T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sawai, M.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, A.

T. Ogawa, A. Sekiguchi, N. Yoshizawa, “Advantages of a SiOxNy:H antireflective layer for ArF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 6360–6365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheats, J. R.

J. R. Sheats, B. W. Smith, Microlithography Science and Technology, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998).

Short, R. D.

M. R. Alexander, R. D. Short, F. R. Jones, “An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation into the chemical structure of deposits formed from hexamethyldisiloxane/oxygen plasmas,” J. Mater. Sci. 31, 1879–1885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

J. R. Sheats, B. W. Smith, Microlithography Science and Technology, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998).

Sturtevant, J.

J. Sturtevant, B. Roman, “Antireflection strategies for advanced photolithography,” Microlithogr. World 4(4), 13–21 (1995).

Tani, Y.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuta, T.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Theirich, D.

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Todokoro, Y.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tomo, Y.

T. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Tomo, T. Tsumori, “Novel ARC optimization methodology for KrF excimer laser lithography at low K1 factor,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1674, 362–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Traub, K.

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, O.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, M.

T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsumori, T.

T. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Tomo, T. Tsumori, “Novel ARC optimization methodology for KrF excimer laser lithography at low K1 factor,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1674, 362–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Werner, F.

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, O.

P. Gargini, J. Glaze, O. Williams, “The SIA’s 1997 national technology roadmap for semiconductors,” Solid State Technol. 41, 73–76 (1998).

Yoshizawa, N.

T. Ogawa, A. Sekiguchi, N. Yoshizawa, “Advantages of a SiOxNy:H antireflective layer for ArF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 6360–6365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Mater. Sci.

M. R. Alexander, R. D. Short, F. R. Jones, “An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation into the chemical structure of deposits formed from hexamethyldisiloxane/oxygen plasmas,” J. Mater. Sci. 31, 1879–1885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Tani, H. Mito, Y. Okuda, Y. Todokoro, T. Tatsuta, M. Sawai, O. Tsuji, “Optimization of amorphous carbon-deposition antireflective layer for advanced lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 5909–5913 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, “Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an ECR plasma,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210–L212 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Dai, S. H. Liu, “Rough polysilicon film as a high-performance antireflective layer for sub-half-micron photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6611–6614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Gocho, T. Ogawa, M. Muroyama, J. Sato, “Chemical vapor deposition of anti-reflective layer film for excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 486–490 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, T. Gocho, H. Nakano, M. Tsukamoto, “Hydrogenated silicon-oxynitride film antireflective layer for optical lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3775–3785 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, A. Sekiguchi, N. Yoshizawa, “Advantages of a SiOxNy:H antireflective layer for ArF excimer laser lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 6360–6365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Microlithogr. World

C. A. Mack, “Antireflective coatings,” Microlithogr. World 6(3), 29–30 (1997).

J. Sturtevant, B. Roman, “Antireflection strategies for advanced photolithography,” Microlithogr. World 4(4), 13–21 (1995).

C. A. Mack, “Swing curves,” Microlithogr. World 3(3), 23–25 (1994).

Solid State Technol.

P. Gargini, J. Glaze, O. Williams, “The SIA’s 1997 national technology roadmap for semiconductors,” Solid State Technol. 41, 73–76 (1998).

Surf. Coating Technol.

D. Korzec, D. Theirich, F. Werner, K. Traub, J. Engemann, “Remote and direct microwave plasma deposition of HMDSO films,” Surf. Coating Technol. 74, 67–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. Rochotzki, M. Arzt, F. Blaschta, E. Krebig, U. H. Poll, “Optical properties of plasma polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 234, 463–467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Sheats, B. W. Smith, Microlithography Science and Technology, (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998).

T. Ogawa, M. Kimura, Y. Tomo, T. Tsumori, “Novel ARC optimization methodology for KrF excimer laser lithography at low K1 factor,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J. D. Cuthbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1674, 362–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Admittance loci for different BARC layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray photoelectron spectrum of a HMDSO film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Composition dependence of HMDSO films on gas-flow rate ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission dependence of HMDSO films on gas-flow rate ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical constant dependence of HMDSO films on gas-flow rate ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflection spectrum of a Si substrate (a) before and (b) after addition of a BARC layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflection from Al film coated upon a Si substrate (a) without and (b) with a BARC layer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance swing curves of the TER-1 resist coated upon a Si wafer (a) without and (b) with a BARC layer.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters Used for Deposition of HMDSO Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characteristics of HMDSO-Based BARC Layers for Highly Reflective Substrates

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ=Nm-NsNm+Ns=nm-ikm-ns-iksnm-ikm+ns-iks.

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