Abstract

Metal–dielectric coatings can be used successfully to design broadband absorbers. However, the understanding of the designs is not easy. Here we present a new analytical method using achromatic three-layer stacks. Such metal–dielectric basic structures permit movement from a fixed admittance value to another one over a wide spectral range. Efficient designs are calculated and explained with this method.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Giovannini, C. Amra, “Dielectric thin films for maximized absorption with standard quality black surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 37, 103–105 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.
  3. J. Angele, P. Davi, D. Laroche, P. Payen, “Les “filtres allumettes” composant-cle pour la télédétection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.
  4. J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.
  5. H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.
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  16. F. Lemarquis, G. Marchand, C. Amra, “Design and manufacture of low-absorption ZnS–YF3 antireflection coatings in the 3.5–16-µm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4239–4244 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

1995

1994

1981

1961

Akhouayri, H.

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Amra, C.

H. Giovannini, C. Amra, “Dielectric thin films for maximized absorption with standard quality black surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 37, 103–105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Lemarquis, G. Marchand, C. Amra, “Design and manufacture of low-absorption ZnS–YF3 antireflection coatings in the 3.5–16-µm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4239–4244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Angele, J.

J. Angele, P. Davi, D. Laroche, P. Payen, “Les “filtres allumettes” composant-cle pour la télédétection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Baume, F.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Berger, M.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Bernardet, H.

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Berning, P. H.

Bly, V. T.

Bodin, P.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Boudet, T.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Byrt, K. L.

Calvat, C.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Cathelinaud, M.

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Chaton, P.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Cox, J. T.

Dancoing, G.

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Davi, P.

J. Angele, P. Davi, D. Laroche, P. Payen, “Les “filtres allumettes” composant-cle pour la télédétection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Fournier, A.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Giovannini, H.

H. Giovannini, C. Amra, “Dielectric thin films for maximized absorption with standard quality black surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 37, 103–105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Godechot, X.

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Kemp, R. A.

Kikuchi, K.

Laroche, D.

J. Angele, P. Davi, D. Laroche, P. Payen, “Les “filtres allumettes” composant-cle pour la télédétection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Lartigue, O.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Laubier, D.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Lemarquis, F.

F. Lemarquis, G. Marchand, C. Amra, “Design and manufacture of low-absorption ZnS–YF3 antireflection coatings in the 3.5–16-µm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4239–4244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Li, L.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 1, pp. 36–37.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 43 and 62.

Marchand, G.

Margail, J.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Mestreau, A.

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Monzon, J. J.

Payen, P.

J. Angele, P. Davi, D. Laroche, P. Payen, “Les “filtres allumettes” composant-cle pour la télédétection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Pezant, Ch.

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Quesnel, E.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Ravel, G.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Robic, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Sanchez-Soto, L. L.

Sonoi, K.

Stenger, V.

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Sullivan, B. T.

Torchio, P.

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

Uehara, K.

Yamasaki, M.

Zheng, Y.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

A. Mestreau, H. Bernardet, G. Dancoing, X. Godechot, Ch. Pezant, V. Stenger, “Microfabrication of high performance optical diaphragm by plasma ion beam etching technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

J. Angele, P. Davi, D. Laroche, P. Payen, “Les “filtres allumettes” composant-cle pour la télédétection,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

J.-Y. Robic, F. Baume, M. Berger, T. Boudet, C. Calvat, P. Chaton, O. Lartigue, E. Quesnel, G. Ravel, J. Margail, A. Fournier, P. Bodin, D. Laubier, “Faisabilité d’un séparateur spectral intégré: étude de filtres optiques localisés et d’un diaphragme absorbant,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

H. Giovannini, F. Lemarquis, H. Akhouayri, M. Cathelinaud, P. Torchio, C. Amra, “Broad-band absorbers for reduction of parasitic light: two alternative solutions,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Optics, ICSO’97 (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 1997), n.p.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 43 and 62.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985 and 1991), Vols. 1 and 2.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 1, pp. 36–37.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of a dielectric absorber deposited on a metallic substrate. The design is the same as a Fabry–Perot filter. One mirror is formed by the substrate and the other by a quarter-wave dielectric stack. The thickness of the spacer must be calculated to compensate for the phase shift induced by the metallic mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of an all-dielectric absorber deposited on a metallic substrate: silver/1.825L H L H L H L H/Air; n H = 2.3; and n L = 1.3. H and L represent high- and low-index quarter-wave layers, respectively, for the centering wavelength λ o = 0.7 µm. The dispersion law used for the refractive index of silver is given in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive indices (n) and extinction coefficients (k) of chromium and silver. Values are taken from Ref. 13.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

General admittance diagram of a two-layer metal–dielectric absorber deposited on a metallic substrate. Starting from the substrate admittance, a first dielectric layer permits movement to the upper part of the diagram, from Y M to Y 1. A metallic layer then permits the real axis, from Y 1 to Y 2, to be reached. Reflectance is canceled when Y 2 corresponds to the external medium index n o . Indices used in this figure for dielectric layers and metal (substrate and layers) are 1.38 and 2 - 4i, respectively. Re and Im represent the real and the imaginary parts of the complex admittance, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the optical properties of two-layer absorbers with either chromium or silver. The dielectric material is MgF2 (n = 1.38). The indices used for metals are given in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

General admittance diagram for a multilayer metal–dielectric absorber with several admittance values for moving from the substrate admittance Y M to the external medium index n o . Most often, the dielectric layer is deposited first, followed by the metallic layer, from Y i to Y i+1. This order may be reversed, as represented for the last two layers of this diagram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance of 2-, 4-, and 8-layer designs calculated with a linear progression law for intermediate admittance values. The thicknesses of the layers, as well as the intermediate admittance values, are given in Table 1. Reference wavelength λ o for which reflectance is canceled is equal to 0.7 µm. Refractive index used for chromium is given in Fig. 3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance of 2-, 4-, and 8-layer designs calculated with a square-root progression law for intermediate admittance values. The thicknesses of the layers, as well as the intermediate admittance values are given in Table 2. Reference wavelength λ o for which reflectance is canceled is equal to 0.7 µm. Refractive index used for chromium is given in Fig. 3.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reflectance of the eight-layer design given in Table 2, plotted on a logarithmic scale. Reference wavelength λ o for which reflectance is canceled is equal to 0.7 µm. Refractive index used for chromium is given in Fig. 3.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Admittance diagram of the eight-layer design given in Table 2 for its reference wavelength. The dots correspond to the intermediate admittance values chosen for this design.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic admittance diagram for a dielectric layer followed by a metallic one, for three different wavelengths, starting from a single admittance value. The optical properties are not achromatic.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic admittance diagram for a three-layer dielectric–metal–dielectric structure. Achromatic properties may be obtained if the admittance versus wavelength, after the two first layers, is located on a single dielectric circle corresponding to the third layer.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

General admittance diagram for the determination of three-layer achromatic structures. The feather corresponds to the admittance locus versus the wavelength after the two first layers, for several ratios of these two first-layer thicknesses. Small circles (oooo) correspond to the points where these loci are tangential to the dielectric circle of the third layer. Small crosses (++++) correspond to the admittance values that can be reached achromatically with this third layer. Dispersion of chromium is not taken into account in this diagram, which is calculated for a reference wavelength equal to 0.7 µm. The starting admittance corresponds here to a metallic substrate.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Admittance diagram for the first three-layer achromatic structure of the designs given in Table 3, deposited on a metallic substrate for wavelength λ- = 0.6, λ o = 0.7, and λ+ = 0.9 µm. The final admittance value is almost constant over a wide spectral range. Dispersion of metal was not taken into account for this figure.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of the optical properties of the three designs given in Table 3. Curve 1 corresponds to the original achromatic design. Reflectance is not canceled at reference wavelength λ o = 0.7 µm. Curves 2 and 3 correspond to the second and third modified designs, respectively, for which reflectance is canceled at the reference wavelength. Achromatic properties are lost for the second design. Curve 3 should be compared with Fig. 9.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Thicknesses for Two-, Four-, and Eight-Layer Metal–Dielectric Absorbersa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Physical Thicknesses for Two-, Four-, and Eight-Layer Metal–Dielectric Absorbersa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Physical Thicknesses of Metal–Dielectric Absorbers Designed with Three Three-Layer Achromatic Structuresa

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=no-Y/no+Yno-Y/no+Y*
Yi=YM+no/2,
Yi=YMn01/2.

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