Abstract

The damage fluences of gratings for diffraction of ultraviolet radiation, which are used in high-order harmonic generation experiments, have been measured with respect to the fundamental laser beam radiation. We have tested gold and platinum coatings of 40- and 50-nm thickness, respectively, deposited onto fused-silica substrates, after irradiation of high-energy, spatially filtered, 20-fs laser pulses at 780 nm. The damage appears at a fluence of ∼0.3 J cm-2 for gold and at a fluence of ∼0.4 J cm-2 for platinum. Scanning electron microscopy of the irradiated regions revealed different damaging mechanisms for the two coatings.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. For a review see C. P. J. Barty, W. White, W. Sibbett, R. Trebino, eds., Ultrafast Optics, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.4 (1998).
  2. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10-fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 595–601 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. L’Huillier, K. Schafer, K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: the role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Macklin, J. Kmetec, C. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  12. M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).
  13. M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. D. Boyd, J. A. Britten, D. E. Decker, B. W. Shore, B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, L. Li, “High-efficiency metallic diffraction gratings for laser applications,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1697–1706 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shoreand, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962–1965 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).
  21. K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. The adhesion energy of gold and platinum on sapphire is 0.8 and 2.3 J/m2, respectively. See M. Lipkin, J. N. Israelachvili, D. R. Clarke, “Estimating the metal-ceramic van der Waals adhesion energy,” Philos. Mag. A 76, 715–718 (1997).

1998 (2)

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

The adhesion energy of gold and platinum on sapphire is 0.8 and 2.3 J/m2, respectively. See M. Lipkin, J. N. Israelachvili, D. R. Clarke, “Estimating the metal-ceramic van der Waals adhesion energy,” Philos. Mag. A 76, 715–718 (1997).

1996 (2)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10-fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shoreand, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Macklin, J. Kmetec, C. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).

1991 (2)

A. L’Huillier, K. Schafer, K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: the role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1984 (1)

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Agius, B.

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anisimov, S. I.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arena, C.

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessot, J.

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. D.

Boyer, K.

Britten, J. A.

Bron, W. E.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. R.

The adhesion energy of gold and platinum on sapphire is 0.8 and 2.3 J/m2, respectively. See M. Lipkin, J. N. Israelachvili, D. R. Clarke, “Estimating the metal-ceramic van der Waals adhesion energy,” Philos. Mag. A 76, 715–718 (1997).

Corkum, P. V.

P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10-fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Decker, D. E.

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Ferencz, K.

Froment, M.

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallazzi, A. M.

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Golovlev, V. V.

V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).

Gordon, C.

J. Macklin, J. Kmetec, C. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauser, J. J.

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

Hugon, M. C.

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Israelachvili, J. N.

The adhesion energy of gold and platinum on sapphire is 0.8 and 2.3 J/m2, respectively. See M. Lipkin, J. N. Israelachvili, D. R. Clarke, “Estimating the metal-ceramic van der Waals adhesion energy,” Philos. Mag. A 76, 715–718 (1997).

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Juhasz, T.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kan, C.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J.

J. Macklin, J. Kmetec, C. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppitsch, R.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K.

A. L’Huillier, K. Schafer, K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: the role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. Schafer, K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: the role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).

Li, L.

Lipkin, M.

The adhesion energy of gold and platinum on sapphire is 0.8 and 2.3 J/m2, respectively. See M. Lipkin, J. N. Israelachvili, D. R. Clarke, “Estimating the metal-ceramic van der Waals adhesion energy,” Philos. Mag. A 76, 715–718 (1997).

Luk, T. S.

Macklin, J.

J. Macklin, J. Kmetec, C. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magni, V.

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maris, H. J.

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Matveets, Yu. A.

V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).

McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10-fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oparin, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

Pruneri, V.

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C. K.

Romanoni, C.

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Sanov, A. M.

V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.

A. L’Huillier, K. Schafer, K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: the role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schnurer, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, N. K.

P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shore, B. W.

Shoreand, B. W.

Smith, G. O.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strait, J.

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10-fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Szipocs, R.

Tauc, J.

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, C.

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z.

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Varniere, F.

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wobrauschek, P.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zerbi, G.

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zotti, G.

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10-fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. C. Hugon, F. Varniere, B. Agius, M. Froment, C. Arena, J. Bessot, “Stresses, microstructure and resistivity of thin tungsten films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 38, 269–285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, V. Pruneri, S. De Silvestri, V. Magni, A. M. Gallazzi, C. Romanoni, G. Zerbi, G. Zotti, “Ultrafast non-linear optical response and acoustic phonon generation in poly (alkoxy-thiophene) film with regioregular structure,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 64–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JEPT Lett. (1)

V. V. Golovlev, Yu. A. Matveets, A. M. Sanov, V. S. Letokhov, “Relaxation of the electron temperature in a copper film excited by femtosecond laser pulses,” JEPT Lett. 55, 450–454 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (2)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1526–1528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. A (1)

The adhesion energy of gold and platinum on sapphire is 0.8 and 2.3 J/m2, respectively. See M. Lipkin, J. N. Israelachvili, D. R. Clarke, “Estimating the metal-ceramic van der Waals adhesion energy,” Philos. Mag. A 76, 715–718 (1997).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmittivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488–4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. Schafer, K. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation in xenon at 1064 nm: the role of phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2200–2203 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Macklin, J. Kmetec, C. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnurer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

For a review see C. P. J. Barty, W. White, W. Sibbett, R. Trebino, eds., Ultrafast Optics, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.4 (1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Filled circles correspond to surface damage; filled triangles correspond to the absence of damage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gold coating exposed to 0.31 J cm-2 for 100 laser shots.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gold coating exposed to 1 J cm-2 for (a) 21 and (b) 128 laser shots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Platinum coating exposed to 0.45 J cm-2 for 20 laser shots; (b) undulation of the detached coating.

Metrics