Abstract

A new wavelength division multiplexing grating-based beam-forming architecture for phased arrays that can achieve the minimum possible number of optical interconnects is presented. A reduction in interconnect hardware of 99.6% is obtained for a 512-beam array, which is, as far as we know, the lowest number of interconnects reported to date. Analysis of the ultimate beam capacity limit of the beam former shows that the beat noise interference limitation is the most important factor. We present a new hybrid frequency-converting optical beam former that removes the fundamental beat noise limitation. This frequency downconverts the rf signal to an intermediate frequency before performing the true-time-delay equalization in the optical domain. The resulting advantage of reduced optical bandwidth per channel enables more wavelengths to be used for a given wavelength span, resulting in an increased beam capacity. A greater than sevenfold increase in beam capacity is demonstrated through the use of the frequency conversion technique, with 960 beams synthesized at 12.4 GHz, showing a 99.8% reduction in required interconnects.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True-time delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. P. Goutzoulis, K. Davies, “Hardware-compressive 2-D fiber optic delay line architecture for time steering of phased-array antennas,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5353–5359 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, N. Fourikis, “Wavelength-multiplexed photonic beam-former architecture for microwave phased arrays,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 84–88 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. E. Alameh, R. A. Minasian, N. Fourikis, “High capacity optical interconnects for phased array beamformers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1116–1120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, M. G. Parent, “Array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1216–1218 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fibre grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Hunter, R. A. Minasian, “Microwave optical filter using in-fiber Bragg arrays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 6, 103–105 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1848–1849 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Yoffe, P. Krug, F. Ouellette, D. Thorncraft, “Temperature-compensated optical-fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 134–135.

1997 (5)

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fibre grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Hunter, R. A. Minasian, “Microwave optical filter using in-fiber Bragg arrays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 6, 103–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (7)

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, M. G. Parent, “Array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1216–1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True-time delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, N. Fourikis, “Wavelength-multiplexed photonic beam-former architecture for microwave phased arrays,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Alameh, R. A. Minasian, N. Fourikis, “High capacity optical interconnects for phased array beamformers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1116–1120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1848–1849 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Alameh, K. E.

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, N. Fourikis, “Wavelength-multiplexed photonic beam-former architecture for microwave phased arrays,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Alameh, R. A. Minasian, N. Fourikis, “High capacity optical interconnects for phased array beamformers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1116–1120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, N.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. G.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, K.

Dexter, J. L.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edge, C.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True-time delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, M. G. Parent, “Array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1216–1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fells, J.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fourikis, N.

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, N. Fourikis, “Wavelength-multiplexed photonic beam-former architecture for microwave phased arrays,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Alameh, R. A. Minasian, N. Fourikis, “High capacity optical interconnects for phased array beamformers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1116–1120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True-time delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, M. G. Parent, “Array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1216–1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frigyes, I.

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gimeno, B.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goutzoulis, A. P.

Hunter, D.

D. Hunter, R. A. Minasian, “Microwave optical filter using in-fiber Bragg arrays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 6, 103–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johns, S.

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P.

G. Yoffe, P. Krug, F. Ouellette, D. Thorncraft, “Temperature-compensated optical-fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 134–135.

Lee, J. J.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, P. J.

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minasian, R. A.

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hunter, R. A. Minasian, “Microwave optical filter using in-fiber Bragg arrays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 6, 103–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, N. Fourikis, “Wavelength-multiplexed photonic beam-former architecture for microwave phased arrays,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Alameh, R. A. Minasian, N. Fourikis, “High capacity optical interconnects for phased array beamformers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1116–1120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molony, A.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newberg, I. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

G. Yoffe, P. Krug, F. Ouellette, D. Thorncraft, “Temperature-compensated optical-fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 134–135.

Parent, M. G.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, M. G. Parent, “Array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1216–1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payson, P.

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmuck, H.

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1848–1849 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stiwell, D.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thorncraft, D.

G. Yoffe, P. Krug, F. Ouellette, D. Thorncraft, “Temperature-compensated optical-fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 134–135.

Tiger, B. O.

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tong, D. T. K.

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fibre grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toughlian, E. N.

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walston, A. A.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fibre grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoffe, G.

G. Yoffe, P. Krug, F. Ouellette, D. Thorncraft, “Temperature-compensated optical-fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 134–135.

Zhang, L.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (5)

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Programmable dispersion matrix using Bragg fibre grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, “Time-steered array with chirped grating beamformer,” Electron. Lett. 33, 652–653 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber grating time delay element for phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1485–1486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Cruz, B. O. Tiger, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratingsfor phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1848–1849 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, “Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. (1)

D. Hunter, R. A. Minasian, “Microwave optical filter using in-fiber Bragg arrays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 6, 103–105 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Zmuda, R. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using fibre grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stiwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, M. G. Parent, “Array transmitter/receiver controlled by a true time-delay fiber-optic beamformer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1216–1218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (4)

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True-time delay fiber-optic control of an ultrawideband array transmitter/receiver with multibeam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. E. Alameh, R. A. Minasian, N. Fourikis, “High capacity optical interconnects for phased array beamformers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1116–1120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, N. Fourikis, “Wavelength-multiplexed photonic beam-former architecture for microwave phased arrays,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Yoffe, P. Krug, F. Ouellette, D. Thorncraft, “Temperature-compensated optical-fiber Bragg gratings,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 134–135.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Architecture of the minimum-interconnect grating-based WDM photonic beam former.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Delay-time profile to equalize a certain beam direction of the minimum-interconnect grating-based WDM photonic beam-forming network.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of required interconnects versus number of beams in the phased array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Grating delay unit wavelength span requirement for beat noise elimination. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum RF versus number of beams.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Grating delay unit minimum time delay requirement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Architecture of grating-based beam former with frequency conversion for controlling beat noise.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Number of beams that can be synthesized with the proposed frequency converting optical beam former versus the grating bandwidth.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K=2M.
R=1-2/M
fmax,beat =cΔλ3Mλ02,
θmax,chirped =sin-14fndgc,
δmax,chirped =2ndgMcΔλ.
Pdeg =cos2πλ02δmax,chirpedf2c.
fmax,dispersion=cλ00.235ΔλπndgM1/2.

Metrics