Abstract

We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument’s input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1–6 (412–670 nm), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is approximately 1.5% and for band 8 (865 nm) approximately 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Because SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.
  21. R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 31.
  22. R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.
  23. R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.
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  25. B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiances and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWiFS prelaunch algorithm for the diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, E-n. Yeh, R. A. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. A. Early, B. C. Johnson, J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, eds., Part 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), Vol. 41.
  31. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

1998 (2)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

1997 (1)

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiances and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. R. Herman, R. D. Hudson, G. N. Serafino, “An analysis of the 8 year trend in ozone depletion from alternate models of SBUV instrument degradation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7403–7416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the ocean in the visible,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. E. Frederick, R. P. Cebula, D. F. Heath, “Instrument characterization for detection of long-term changes in stratospheric ozone: an analysis of the SBUV/2 radiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 4, 472–480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

T. C. Van Flandern, I. F. Pulkkinen, “Low-precision formulae for planetary positions,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 41, 391–411 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. M.

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the moon for spacecraft calibration,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, “Overview of the SeaWiFS ocean sensor,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 224–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, “The SeaWiFS solar diffuser,” in R. A. Barnes, E-n. Yeh, R. E. Eplee, eds., SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996), Vol. 39.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 22.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 31.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Barnes, W. L.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 22.

Biggar, S. F.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, R. P.

J. E. Frederick, R. P. Cebula, D. F. Heath, “Instrument characterization for detection of long-term changes in stratospheric ozone: an analysis of the SBUV/2 radiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 4, 472–480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus-7 CZCS: reduction of its radiometric sensitivity with time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929–3931 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleave, M. L.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

El-Sayed, S. Z.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Eplee, R. E.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, “The SeaWiFS solar diffuser,” in R. A. Barnes, E-n. Yeh, R. E. Eplee, eds., SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996), Vol. 39.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 22.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 31.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Evans, R. H.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus-7 CZCS: reduction of its radiometric sensitivity with time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929–3931 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Frederick, J. E.

J. E. Frederick, R. P. Cebula, D. F. Heath, “Instrument characterization for detection of long-term changes in stratospheric ozone: an analysis of the SBUV/2 radiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 4, 472–480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiances and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the ocean in the visible,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus-7 CZCS: reduction of its radiometric sensitivity with time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929–3931 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

Guenther, B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Heath, D. F.

J. E. Frederick, R. P. Cebula, D. F. Heath, “Instrument characterization for detection of long-term changes in stratospheric ozone: an analysis of the SBUV/2 radiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 4, 472–480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Helfenstein, P.

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, R. D. Hudson, G. N. Serafino, “An analysis of the 8 year trend in ozone depletion from alternate models of SBUV instrument degradation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7403–7416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, “Overview of the SeaWiFS ocean sensor,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 224–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 31.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, J. S. Knoll, G. R. Smith, “Aircraft measurements for calibration of an orbiting spacecraft,” Appl. Opt. 24, 407–410 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, R. D.

J. R. Herman, R. D. Hudson, G. N. Serafino, “An analysis of the 8 year trend in ozone depletion from alternate models of SBUV instrument degradation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7403–7416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, H. H.

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the moon for spacecraft calibration,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, J. S.

Kuring, N.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Lane, A. P.

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 22.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Mecherikunnel, A. T.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

Mueller, J.

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWiFS prelaunch algorithm for the diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, E-n. Yeh, R. A. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. A. Early, B. C. Johnson, J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, eds., Part 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), Vol. 41.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, J. M.

J. M. Palmer, P. N. Slater, “A ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pulkkinen, I. F.

T. C. Van Flandern, I. F. Pulkkinen, “Low-precision formulae for planetary positions,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 41, 391–411 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Serafino, G. N.

J. R. Herman, R. D. Hudson, G. N. Serafino, “An analysis of the 8 year trend in ozone depletion from alternate models of SBUV instrument degradation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7403–7416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

J. M. Palmer, P. N. Slater, “A ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. R.

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

Thome, K. J.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

Trees, C. C.

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWiFS prelaunch algorithm for the diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, E-n. Yeh, R. A. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. A. Early, B. C. Johnson, J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, eds., Part 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), Vol. 41.

Van Flandern, T. C.

T. C. Van Flandern, I. F. Pulkkinen, “Low-precision formulae for planetary positions,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 41, 391–411 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Veverka, J.

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Viollier, M.

Wang, M.

Wildey, R. L.

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. H.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalewski, E. F.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Astron. J. (1)

A. P. Lane, W. M. Irvine, “Monochromatic phase curves and albedos for the lunar disk,” Astron. J. 78, 267–277 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. (1)

T. C. Van Flandern, I. F. Pulkkinen, “Low-precision formulae for planetary positions,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 41, 391–411 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (2)

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Helfenstein, J. Veverka, “Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equations,” Icarus 72, 342–357 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

J. E. Frederick, R. P. Cebula, D. F. Heath, “Instrument characterization for detection of long-term changes in stratospheric ozone: an analysis of the SBUV/2 radiometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 4, 472–480 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. (1)

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

J. R. Herman, R. D. Hudson, G. N. Serafino, “An analysis of the 8 year trend in ozone depletion from alternate models of SBUV instrument degradation,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7403–7416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the ocean in the visible,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–62 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sea Technol. (1)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biospheric research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Other (14)

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 1.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992), Vol. 3.

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Revised SeaWiFS prelaunch algorithm for the diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” in Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation, E-n. Yeh, R. A. Barnes, M. Darzi, L. Kumar, E. A. Early, B. C. Johnson, J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, eds., Part 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), Vol. 41.

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, “The SeaWiFS solar diffuser,” in R. A. Barnes, E-n. Yeh, R. E. Eplee, eds., SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1996), Vol. 39.

J. M. Palmer, P. N. Slater, “A ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, “SeaWiFS measurements of the moon,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 311–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 22.

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the moon for spacecraft calibration,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, “Overview of the SeaWiFS ocean sensor,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 224–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, S. F. Biggar, K. J. Thome, E. F. Zalewski, P. N. Slater, A. W. Holmes, “The SeaWiFS solar radiation-based calibration and the transfer-to-orbit experiment,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999), Vol. 5.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. E. Esaias, “Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), Vol. 31.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), Vol. 23.

R. H. Woodward, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. L. Barnes, A. T. Mecherikunnel, “Modeling of the SeaWiFS solar and lunar observations,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1993), Vol. 10.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SeaWiFS scanner assembly. The scanner mounts to the spacecraft using the four mounting points at the top of the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lunar scene measured by SeaWiFS. The scene is 22 samples wide by 33 scan lines long. The scene is a Mercator projection with the lunar North Pole at the top. The values from band 1 are given as digital counts after the subtraction of the zero offset. For the analysis of lunar data, these counts are converted to spectral radiances using the SeaWiFS radiometric calibration algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correction factors for the lunar measurements. Each individual factor is shown, plus the combined correction factor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Disk-integrated reflectance versus lunar phase angle: (a) disk-integrated lunar reflectance (BRDF) from 0° to 40° phase and (b) lunar reflectance normalizing factor calculated with Eq. (8). The value at 7° phase angle is unity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Changes in radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands from the lunar measurements. The time series are normalized to unity for the first lunar measurement in November 1997. The horizontal lines with values of 0.99, 1.00, and 1.01 are visual references.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in the SeaWiFS bands after normalization to the average of bands 1–6. The scatter of the data points about the trend lines is substantially reduced compared with Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in SeaWiFS bands 7 and 8. The time series for these bands use the modified exponential function from Eq. (10).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-piece linear fits to the lunar-based trends for SeaWiFS bands 7 and 8.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Azimuth angle correction for solar diffuser measurements by SeaWiFS band 8: (a) azimuth angle for solar diffuser measurements and (b) output from band 8 before and after correction. The symbols give the values before correction and the curve gives the values after. The correction increases the values of the diffuser measurements for azimuth angles that are different from zero.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Trends in the solar diffuser measurements for the SeaWiFS bands. There are 356 measurements in each panel. The format for this figure duplicates that for Figs. 5 and 6.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Data Points used to Create Fig. 5a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Standard Deviations of the Data Points from the Trend Linesa

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DSM=DSE+R,
k1=DSMU2,
DIM=DEM-A-H,
k2=DIMR2.
f1θ=a0+a1θ,
k3=0.9611a0+a1θ.
f2θ=b0+b1θ+b2θ2,
k4=f27f2θ=0.09238b0+b1θ+b2θ2.
k5=25LMDIMR=25LMRDIM,
R1t=expc0+c1t+c2t2,
R2t=1-d11-exp-d2t,

Metrics