Abstract

The Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer II (ALIAS-II) is a lightweight, high-resolution (0.0003-cm-1), scanning, mid-infrared absorption spectrometer based on cooled (80 K) lead-salt tunable diode laser sources. It is designed to make in situ measurements in the lower and middle stratosphere on either a balloon platform or high-altitude remotely piloted aircraft. Chemical species that can be measured precisely include long-lived tracers N2O and CH4, the shorter-lived tracer CO, and chemically active species HCl and NO2. Advances in electronic instrumentation developed for ALIAS-I, with the experience of more than 250 flights on board NASA’s ER-2 aircraft, have been implemented in ALIAS-II. The two-channel spectrometer features an open cradle, multipass absorption cell to ensure minimal contamination from inlet and surfaces. Time resolution of the instrument is ≤3 s, allowing rapid in situ measurements with excellent spatial resolution. ALIAS-II has completed successful balloon flights from New Mexico, Alaska, and Brazil providing CH4 and N2O vertical profiles in the tropics, mid-latitudes, and high northern latitudes up to altitudes of 32 km.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  40. D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
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  42. R. A. Plumb, “A “tropical pipe” model of stratospheric transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3957–3972 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4 and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Plumb, “A “tropical pipe” model of stratospheric transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 3957–3972 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Avallone, M. J. Prather, “Photochemical evolution of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1457–1461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oltmans, D. J. Hofmann, “Increase in lower-stratospheric water-vapor at a mid-latitude northern-hemisphere site from 1981 to 1994,” Nature (London) 374, 146–149 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer-tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

J. Podolski, M. Loewenstein, “Airborne tunable diode laser spectrometer for trace-gas measurement in the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5324–5333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Plumb, M. K. W. Ko, “Interrelationships between mixing ratios of long-lived stratospheric constituents,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,145–10,156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Stachnik, J. C. Hardy, J. A. Tarsala, J. W. Waters, N. R. Erickson, “Submillimeter heterodyne measurements of stratospheric ClO, HCl, O3 and HO2: first results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1931–1934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “Impact of aircraft and surface emissions of nitrogen oxides on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature (London) 355, 69–71 (1992); Th. Peter, C. Brühl, P. J. Crutzen, “Increase in the PSC-formation probability caused by high-flying aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1465–1468 (1991); S. Bekki, J. A. Pyle, “Potential impact of combined NOx and SOx emissions from future high speed civil transport aircraft on stratospheric aerosols and ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 723–726 (1993); P. Kasibhatla, “NOy from sub-sonic aircraft emissions: a global three-dimensional model study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1707–1710 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. C. Toon, “The JPL MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, “High resolution spectroscopy of the sun and the Earth’s atmosphere from space,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 3, 189–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. H. Proffitt, R. J. McLaughlin, “Fast-response dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer suitable for use on stratospheric balloons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1719–1728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Humlicek, “Optimized computation of the Voigt and complex probability functions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 437–444 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Correction of atmospheric N2O mixing-ratio data,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5385–5386 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Altman, R. Baumgart, C. Weitkamp, “Two-mirror multipass absorption cell,” Appl. Opt. 20, 995–999 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. J. Crutzen, “The role of NO and NO2 in the chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere,” Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 7, 443–472 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. A. Bush, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Stratospheric measurements of methane at several latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 1027–1029 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. S. Johnston, “Reduction of stratospheric ozone by nitrogen oxide catalysts from SST exhaust,” Science 173, 517–522 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

P. J. Crutzen, “The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 320–325 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Abbas, M. M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Albritton, D. L.

P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Correction of atmospheric N2O mixing-ratio data,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5385–5386 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Bush, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Stratospheric measurements of methane at several latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 1027–1029 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Albritton, R. T. Watson, “Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1991,” (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1991); S. W. Kandebo, “HSCT engine research makes steady gains,” Aviat. Week Space Technol. 139, 46–50 (1993); J. P. Beck, C. E. Reeves, F. A. A. M. De Leeuw, S. A. Penkett, “The effect of aircraft emissions on tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 17–29 (1992); D. F. Ehhalt, F. Rohrer, A. Wahner, “Sources and distribution of NOx in the upper troposphere at northern mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 3725–3738 (1992).

Allen, M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Altman, J.

Anderson, J. G.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. E.

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

Avallone, L. M.

L. M. Avallone, M. J. Prather, “Photochemical evolution of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 1457–1461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgart, R.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boering, K. A.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer-tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

Bowen, S.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brock, C. A.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bush, Y. A.

Y. A. Bush, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Stratospheric measurements of methane at several latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 1027–1029 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. R.

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, A. Y.

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chave, R. G.

Crutzen, P. J.

P. J. Crutzen, “The role of NO and NO2 in the chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere,” Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 7, 443–472 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Crutzen, “The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 320–325 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Daube, B. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer-tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

Dessler, A. E.

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R.

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

Dutton, G. S.

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

Elkins, J. W.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

Ely, G. A.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, N. R.

R. A. Stachnik, J. C. Hardy, J. A. Tarsala, J. W. Waters, N. R. Erickson, “Submillimeter heterodyne measurements of stratospheric ClO, HCl, O3 and HO2: first results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1931–1934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eubank, C. S.

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, D. W.

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

Farmer, C. B.

C. B. Farmer, “High resolution spectroscopy of the sun and the Earth’s atmosphere from space,” Mikrochim. Acta (Wien) 3, 189–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the spacelab 3 mission, April 29 through May 6, 1985,” (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987), pp. 1–45.

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Correction of atmospheric N2O mixing-ratio data,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5385–5386 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Bush, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Stratospheric measurements of methane at several latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 1027–1029 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R. S.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gilligan, J. M.

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldan, P. D.

P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Correction of atmospheric N2O mixing-ratio data,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5385–5386 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4 and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. C.

R. A. Stachnik, J. C. Hardy, J. A. Tarsala, J. W. Waters, N. R. Erickson, “Submillimeter heterodyne measurements of stratospheric ClO, HCl, O3 and HO2: first results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1931–1934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. W.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henshaw, J.

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “Impact of aircraft and surface emissions of nitrogen oxides on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature (London) 355, 69–71 (1992); Th. Peter, C. Brühl, P. J. Crutzen, “Increase in the PSC-formation probability caused by high-flying aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1465–1468 (1991); S. Bekki, J. A. Pyle, “Potential impact of combined NOx and SOx emissions from future high speed civil transport aircraft on stratospheric aerosols and ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 723–726 (1993); P. Kasibhatla, “NOy from sub-sonic aircraft emissions: a global three-dimensional model study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1707–1710 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herman, R. L.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, “In situ measurements of chemical tracers in the stratosphere; CO, N2O, and CH4,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1998).

Herriott, D.

Hill, G. F.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, E. D.

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 163–272.

Hintsa, E. J.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

S. J. Oltmans, D. J. Hofmann, “Increase in lower-stratospheric water-vapor at a mid-latitude northern-hemisphere site from 1981 to 1994,” Nature (London) 374, 146–149 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Humlicek, J.

J. Humlicek, “Optimized computation of the Voigt and complex probability functions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 437–444 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Irion, F. W.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

James, T. C.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “Impact of aircraft and surface emissions of nitrogen oxides on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature (London) 355, 69–71 (1992); Th. Peter, C. Brühl, P. J. Crutzen, “Increase in the PSC-formation probability caused by high-flying aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1465–1468 (1991); S. Bekki, J. A. Pyle, “Potential impact of combined NOx and SOx emissions from future high speed civil transport aircraft on stratospheric aerosols and ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 723–726 (1993); P. Kasibhatla, “NOy from sub-sonic aircraft emissions: a global three-dimensional model study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1707–1710 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, H. S.

H. S. Johnston, “Reduction of stratospheric ozone by nitrogen oxide catalysts from SST exhaust,” Science 173, 517–522 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jost, H.

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karecki, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawa, S. R.

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keim, E. R.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer-tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. K.

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, J.

Ko, M. K. W.

R. A. Plumb, M. K. W. Ko, “Interrelationships between mixing ratios of long-lived stratospheric constituents,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,145–10,156 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kumer, J. B.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuster, W. C.

P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, A. L. Schmeltekopf, F. C. Fehsenfeld, D. L. Albritton, “Correction of atmospheric N2O mixing-ratio data,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5385–5386 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lait, L.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. C.

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer-tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Podolski, M. Loewenstein, “Airborne tunable diode laser spectrometer for trace-gas measurement in the lower stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5324–5333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

Lohmann, R. P.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4 and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Margitan, J. J.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McInnes, G.

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “Impact of aircraft and surface emissions of nitrogen oxides on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature (London) 355, 69–71 (1992); Th. Peter, C. Brühl, P. J. Crutzen, “Increase in the PSC-formation probability caused by high-flying aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1465–1468 (1991); S. Bekki, J. A. Pyle, “Potential impact of combined NOx and SOx emissions from future high speed civil transport aircraft on stratospheric aerosols and ozone,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 723–726 (1993); P. Kasibhatla, “NOy from sub-sonic aircraft emissions: a global three-dimensional model study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1707–1710 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. J.

M. H. Proffitt, R. J. McLaughlin, “Fast-response dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer suitable for use on stratospheric balloons,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1719–1728 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McLoghlin, R.

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

Menzies, R. T.

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 163–272.

Mergenthaler, J. L.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miake-Lye, R. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4 and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minschwaner, K.

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, F. L.

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

Moyer, E. J.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. M.

D. M. Murphy, D. W. Fahey, M. H. Proffitt, S. C. Liu, K. R. Chan, C. S. Eubank, S. R. Kawa, K. K. Kelly, “Reactive nitrogen and its correlation with ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 8751–8773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oltmans, S. J.

S. J. Oltmans, D. J. Hofmann, “Increase in lower-stratospheric water-vapor at a mid-latitude northern-hemisphere site from 1981 to 1994,” Nature (London) 374, 146–149 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. G.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, L.

H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plumb, R. A.

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C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
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C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
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Ray, E. A.

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

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M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
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L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
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K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
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Rodriguez, J. M.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
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R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
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G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
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H. Jost, M. Loewenstein, L. Pfister, J. J. Margitan, A. Y. Chang, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Laminae in the tropical middle stratosphere: origin and age estimation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4337–4340 (1998).
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R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
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M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
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C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, D. C.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stachnik, R. A.

R. A. Stachnik, J. C. Hardy, J. A. Tarsala, J. W. Waters, N. R. Erickson, “Submillimeter heterodyne measurements of stratospheric ClO, HCl, O3 and HO2: first results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1931–1934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sterritt, L. W.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stimpfle, R. M.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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R. S. Stolarski, H. L. Wesoky, “The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: a fourth program report,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Tarsala, J. A.

R. A. Stachnik, J. C. Hardy, J. A. Tarsala, J. W. Waters, N. R. Erickson, “Submillimeter heterodyne measurements of stratospheric ClO, HCl, O3 and HO2: first results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1931–1934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, T. L.

A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toohey, D. W.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toon, G. C.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, “The JPL MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trimble, C. A.

Uplinger, W. G.

A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, G. A. Ely, W. G. Uplinger, J. F. Potter, T. C. James, L. W. Sterritt, “The Cryogenic Limb Array Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS: experiment description and performance,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,763–10,776 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Volk, C. M.

K. Minschwaner, A. E. Dessler, J. W. Elkins, C. M. Volk, D. W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. E. Roche, K. R. Chan, “Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9433–9439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Volk, J. W. Elkins, D. W. Fahey, R. J. Salawitch, G. S. Dutton, J. M. Gilligan, M. H. Proffitt, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. Minschwaner, J. J. Margitan, K. R. Chan, “Quantifying transport between the tropical and mid-latitude lower stratosphere,” Science 272, 1763–1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wade, L. O.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. W.

R. A. Stachnik, J. C. Hardy, J. A. Tarsala, J. W. Waters, N. R. Erickson, “Submillimeter heterodyne measurements of stratospheric ClO, HCl, O3 and HO2: first results,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1931–1934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. T.

D. L. Albritton, R. T. Watson, “Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1991,” (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1991); S. W. Kandebo, “HSCT engine research makes steady gains,” Aviat. Week Space Technol. 139, 46–50 (1993); J. P. Beck, C. E. Reeves, F. A. A. M. De Leeuw, S. A. Penkett, “The effect of aircraft emissions on tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 26, 17–29 (1992); D. F. Ehhalt, F. Rohrer, A. Wahner, “Sources and distribution of NOx in the upper troposphere at northern mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 3725–3738 (1992).

Webster, C. R.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. Newman, L. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. W. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, jNO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11,931–11,950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 163–272.

Weitkamp, C.

Wesoky, H. L.

R. S. Stolarski, H. L. Wesoky, “The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: a fourth program report,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Wilson, J. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wofsy, S. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, E. R. Keim, “Tracer-tracer relationships and lower stratospheric dynamics: CO2 and N2O correlations during SPADE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2567–2570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

Woodbridge, E. L.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, K. A. Boering, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, R. P. Lohmann, E. J. Hintsa, A. E. Dessler, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, J. M. Rodriguez, M. Loewenstein, M. H. Proffitt, R. M. Stimpfle, S. Bowen, K. R. Chan, “In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3065–3074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment timescales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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R. L. Herman, “In situ measurements of chemical tracers in the stratosphere; CO, N2O, and CH4,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1998).

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A manuscript to be called “Time scales for stratospheric transport inferred from in situ measurements of CO2 from aircraft and balloons,” is being prepared by K. A. Boering, A. E. Andrews, B. C. Daube, S. C. Wofsy, M. Loewenstein, C. R. Webster, J. W. Elkins, College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif. (personal communication, March1999).

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A manuscript to be called “First in situ gas chromatograph on a balloon platform yielding tracer measurements with improved spatial resolution,” is being prepared by F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, E. A. Ray, G. S. Dutton, R. Dunn, D. W. Fahey, R. McLoghlin, T. L. Thompson, NOAA, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, January1999).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ALIAS-II configured for an aircraft platform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of ALIAS-II in the balloon gondola, with the optical assembly shown in both deployed and stowed positions. The hatched area is the ALIAS-II electronics, which are mounted above the optical assembly.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of ALIAS-II (top view). The optical assembly and electronics box are mounted separately inside the balloon gondola.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical ray trace through ALIAS-II. Infrared laser beams are shown as dashed lines. Optical components such as windows, lenses, and mirrors are outlined with thick lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Near mirror spot patterns created at the intersection of the infrared beams and the reflective surface of the near mirror of the Herriott cell. The infrared beams enter and exit the Herriott cell through a tapered hole at spot number 86 (shaded). Note: top of mirror is at the left. (b) Far mirror spot patterns. With 86 passes, C 43v is the symmetry point group of the beams in the Herriott cell. However, the angle between consecutive spots on the same mirror is almost 120°, so the point group is almost C 3v .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ALIAS-II electronics. CIP, control interface package; NSBF, National Scientific Balloon Facility; GPS, global positioning system; IMOD, laser current modulation amplitude; RTD’s, resistive temperature devices; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator; I/O, input–output.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Timing diagram for laser current ramp, null integrator, and ramp reset. File structure for the data-acquisition software is also displayed showing the file structure, frame, and subframe content. HK, housekeeping data block.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One individual 3-s subframe of (a) N2O and (b) CH4 spectra recorded by ALIAS-II at 43.8 mbars during the balloon flight of 14 February 1997 (970214) over Brazil. The laser power (dc signal) and the 2f spectra (ac signal) are given in raw ADC counts.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

One frame of atmospheric N2O and CH4 spectra recorded at 62 mbars over Brazil on 14 February 1997. Lasers are scanned over absorption lines at 10 Hz, and 30 individual spectra are averaged into a subframe, which is written to disk every 3 s (seeFig. 7).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Volume mixing ratio profiles of CH4 and N2O retrieved by ALIAS-II on 14 February 1997 over Juazeiro do Norte, Brazil, and on 30 June 1997 over Fairbanks, Alaska. Extremely high values of both tracers CH4 and N2O were recorded at float altitudes near 32 km in the tropics indicating vertical transport into the middle stratosphere. The polar vortex filaments, which were also sampled by ER-2 instruments, indicate downward transport of older air in the polar vortex.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

CH4 versus N2O correlation for ALIAS-II on the OMS gondola flown out of Ft. Sumner, New Mexico, and ALIAS-I on the ER-2 flown out of NASA Ames Research Center, California, on 21 September 1996. The Mark IV was flown out of Ft. Sumner, New Mexico, on 28 September 1996.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

CH4 versus N2O from ALIAS-II and fits to ATMOS data sets.39

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimated Precision and Accuracy of ALIAS-II on the OMS Balloon Platforma

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral Parameters for the CH4 and N2O Lines used by ALIAS-II in the First Series of Flights

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI=-κν¯nIdz,
Iν¯, z=I0 exp-κν¯nz,
ν¯=ν¯01-vz/c,
gDν¯-ν¯0=1/γDln 2/π1/2×exp-ν¯-ν¯02 ln 2/γD2.
γD=ν¯0/c2kT ln 2/m1/2,
gLν¯-ν¯0=γL/π/ν¯-ν¯02+γL2,
γLP, T=γL0P/P0T0/Ts,
gVν¯=-+ gDν¯*-ν¯0gLν¯-ν¯*dν¯*,
gVν¯=ln 2/π1/γD×-+y exp-t2/y2+x-t2πdt.
ν¯t=ν¯0+ν¯scan+a cos2πft,
H2=C 0π g cos2θdθ,
H2obs=y1RiPdcgacg.
Ri=H2obsAcalcH2calcAobsdcgacg1P,
χobs=H2obsH2calc χcalc,

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