Abstract

Spectroscopic, laser, and χ(3) nonlinear optical properties of tetragonal PbWO4, NaY(WO4)2, CaWO4, and monoclinic CdWO4 and ZnWO4 were investigated. Particular attention was paid to Nd3+-doped and undoped PbWO4 and NaY(WO4)2 crystals. Their absorption and luminescence intensity characteristics, including the peak cross sections of induced transitions, were determined. Pulsed and continuous-wave lasing in the two 4 F 3/24 I 11/2 and 4 F 3/24 I 13/2 channels was excited. For these five tungstates, highly efficient (greater than 50%) multiple Stokes generation and anti-Stokes picosecond generation were achieved. All the observed scattered laser components were identified. These results were analyzed and compared with spectroscopic data from spontaneous Raman scattering. A new crystalline Raman laser based on PbWO4 was developed for the χ(3) conversion frequency of 1-µm pump radiation to the first Stokes emission with efficiency up to 40%. We classify all the tungstates as promising media for lasers and neodymium-doped crystals for self-stimulated Raman scattering lasers.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  40. J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibrational properties of double tungstates of the MIMIII(WO4)2 family (MI = Li, Na, K; MIII = Bi, Cr),” J. Solid State Chem. 117, 177–188 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  45. J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient picosecond PbWO4 and two wavelengths KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser in the IR and visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 173–178 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient picosecond PbWO4 and two wavelengths KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser in the IR and visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 173–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

J. Capmany, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous wave laser radiation at 524 nm from a self-frequency-doubling laser of LaBGeO5:Nd3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

1995 (6)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stankov, G. Marowsky, “High-efficient multicolor Q-switched Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 213–215 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibrational properties of double tungstates of the MIMIII(WO4)2 family (MI = Li, Na, K; MIII = Bi, Cr),” J. Solid State Chem. 117, 177–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2, and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibration dynamics of the WOW and WOOW bridge bonds: polarized infrared and Raman spectra of monoclinic KBi(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 10,263–10,271 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

1987 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, “On the lows of crystal-field disorder of Ln3+ ions in insulating crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 102, 389–397 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Broadband emission and laser action of Cr3+ doped zinc tungstates at 1 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1596–1600 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

1977 (1)

J. M. Stencel, J. Springer, E. Silberman, “Infrared and Raman multi-phonon spectra and structure of PbWO4,” J. Mol. Struct. 41, 11–17 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Spectroscopic quality of laser media with Nd3+ and Pm3+ ions,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 1, 567–571 (1975).

1974 (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of RT3+ ions in crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of TR3+ ions in disordered crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, K21–K26 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross-section of neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 47–53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission of KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5, K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. K. Khanna, W. S. Brower, B. R. Guscott, E. R. Lippincott, “Laser induced Raman spectra of some tungstates and molybdates,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 72, 81–84 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

S. P. S. Porto, J. F. Scott, “Raman spectra of CaWO4, SrWO4, CaMoO4, and SrMoO4,” Phys. Rev. 157, 716–719 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Morozov, M. N. Tolstoi, P. P. Feofilov, “Neodymium luminescence in scheelite type crystals,” Opt. Spektrosk. 22, 258–265 (1967).

1966 (1)

Unpublished data from a private communication in the paper by G. Eckhardt, “Selection of Raman laser materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 1–8 (1966).

1965 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

L. F. Johnson, K. Nassau, “Infrared fluorescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Andryunas, K.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Annanenkov, A. N.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Auffray, E.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Austin, W. L.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “End-pumped intercavity solid-state Raman lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 249–251.

Baccaro, S.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Bagaev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barone, L. M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Bondar, V. G.

V. G. Bondar, S. F. Burachas, K. A. Katrunov, V. P. Martynov, V. D. Ryzhikov, “Effects of structure microdefects on scintillation and photostimulated properties of CdWO4 crystals,” in Optical Diagnostics of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 530–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borgia, B.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Boulon, G.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, F.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brower, W. S.

R. K. Khanna, W. S. Brower, B. R. Guscott, E. R. Lippincott, “Laser induced Raman spectra of some tungstates and molybdates,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 72, 81–84 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Burachas, S. F.

V. G. Bondar, S. F. Burachas, K. A. Katrunov, V. P. Martynov, V. D. Ryzhikov, “Effects of structure microdefects on scintillation and photostimulated properties of CdWO4 crystals,” in Optical Diagnostics of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 530–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butashin, A. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous wave laser radiation at 524 nm from a self-frequency-doubling laser of LaBGeO5:Nd3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Castelli, F.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Cavallari, F.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Chai, B. H. T.

W. L. Zhon, X. X. Zhang, B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock, W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 451–454.

Chen, X.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dafinei, I.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Notaristefani, F.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Diomez, M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Eckhardt, G.

Unpublished data from a private communication in the paper by G. Eckhardt, “Selection of Raman laser materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 1–8 (1966).

Eichler, H. J.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient picosecond PbWO4 and two wavelengths KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser in the IR and visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 173–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Emelchenko, G. A.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Faccini, R.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Fedorov, A. A.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feofilov, P. P.

A. M. Morozov, M. N. Tolstoi, P. P. Feofilov, “Neodymium luminescence in scheelite type crystals,” Opt. Spektrosk. 22, 258–265 (1967).

Festinest, A.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Findeisen, J.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient picosecond PbWO4 and two wavelengths KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser in the IR and visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 173–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sole, J.

J. Capmany, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous wave laser radiation at 524 nm from a self-frequency-doubling laser of LaBGeO5:Nd3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grasyuk, A. Z.

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

Grebe, D.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

Gulin, A. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

Gurov, A. F.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Guscott, B. R.

R. K. Khanna, W. S. Brower, B. R. Guscott, E. R. Lippincott, “Laser induced Raman spectra of some tungstates and molybdates,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 72, 81–84 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hanuza, J.

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibrational properties of double tungstates of the MIMIII(WO4)2 family (MI = Li, Na, K; MIII = Bi, Cr),” J. Solid State Chem. 117, 177–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2, and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibration dynamics of the WOW and WOOW bridge bonds: polarized infrared and Raman spectra of monoclinic KBi(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 10,263–10,271 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 100.

Huber, G.

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Broadband emission and laser action of Cr3+ doped zinc tungstates at 1 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1596–1600 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ivannikova, N. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

Jaque, D.

J. Capmany, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous wave laser radiation at 524 nm from a self-frequency-doubling laser of LaBGeO5:Nd3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, K. Nassau, “Infrared fluorescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient picosecond PbWO4 and two wavelengths KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser in the IR and visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 173–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

J. Capmany, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous wave laser radiation at 524 nm from a self-frequency-doubling laser of LaBGeO5:Nd3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

A. A. Kaminskii, “On the lows of crystal-field disorder of Ln3+ ions in insulating crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 102, 389–397 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Spectroscopic quality of laser media with Nd3+ and Pm3+ ions,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 1, 567–571 (1975).

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of RT3+ ions in crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of TR3+ ions in disordered crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, K21–K26 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission of KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5, K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Katrunov, K. A.

V. G. Bondar, S. F. Burachas, K. A. Katrunov, V. P. Martynov, V. D. Ryzhikov, “Effects of structure microdefects on scintillation and photostimulated properties of CdWO4 crystals,” in Optical Diagnostics of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 530–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, R. K.

R. K. Khanna, W. S. Brower, B. R. Guscott, E. R. Lippincott, “Laser induced Raman spectra of some tungstates and molybdates,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 72, 81–84 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kholov, A.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klassen, N. V.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Klevtsov, P. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission of KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5, K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kobelka, V.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Kolbe, W.

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Broadband emission and laser action of Cr3+ doped zinc tungstates at 1 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1596–1600 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kornienko, L. S.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

Korzhik, M. V.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kosenko, A. V.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Kostylev, V. L.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross-section of neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, Y.

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kulakov, A. B.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Kurbanov, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

Kurbasov, S. B.

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

Kuznetsov, F. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lecoq, P.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leonardi, E.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Li, L.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Spectroscopic quality of laser media with Nd3+ and Pm3+ ions,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 1, 567–571 (1975).

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of TR3+ ions in disordered crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, K21–K26 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of RT3+ ions in crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission of KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5, K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ligun, V. D.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lippincott, E. R.

R. K. Khanna, W. S. Brower, B. R. Guscott, E. R. Lippincott, “Laser induced Raman spectra of some tungstates and molybdates,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 72, 81–84 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Longo, E.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Losev, L. L.

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

Lutsenko, A. S.

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

Macdonald, R.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maczka, M.

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2, and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibrational properties of double tungstates of the MIMIII(WO4)2 family (MI = Li, Na, K; MIII = Bi, Cr),” J. Solid State Chem. 117, 177–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibration dynamics of the WOW and WOOW bridge bonds: polarized infrared and Raman spectra of monoclinic KBi(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 10,263–10,271 (1994).
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Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Maksimova, G. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

Marowsky, G.

K. A. Stankov, G. Marowsky, “High-efficient multicolor Q-switched Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 213–215 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, V. P.

V. G. Bondar, S. F. Burachas, K. A. Katrunov, V. P. Martynov, V. D. Ryzhikov, “Effects of structure microdefects on scintillation and photostimulated properties of CdWO4 crystals,” in Optical Diagnostics of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 530–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsinger, B. H.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 47–53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mattioli, M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Missevitch, O. W.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mochalov, I. A.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Montechhi, M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Morozov, A. M.

A. M. Morozov, M. N. Tolstoi, P. P. Feofilov, “Neodymium luminescence in scheelite type crystals,” Opt. Spektrosk. 22, 258–265 (1967).

Murray, J. T.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “End-pumped intercavity solid-state Raman lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 249–251.

Musha, M.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

L. F. Johnson, K. Nassau, “Infrared fluorescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Nishioka, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Odajima, W.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Organitini, G.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Osiko, V. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

Paoletti, S.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

Pavlyuk, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission of KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5, K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Broadband emission and laser action of Cr3+ doped zinc tungstates at 1 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1596–1600 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Petrovskii, G. T.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Polenko, U. B.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polyakova, L. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

Porto, S. P. S.

S. P. S. Porto, J. F. Scott, “Raman spectra of CaWO4, SrWO4, CaMoO4, and SrMoO4,” Phys. Rev. 157, 716–719 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “End-pumped intercavity solid-state Raman lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 249–251.

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

Redkin, B. S.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Rybchenko, S. I.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Ryzhikov, V. D.

V. G. Bondar, S. F. Burachas, K. A. Katrunov, V. P. Martynov, V. D. Ryzhikov, “Effects of structure microdefects on scintillation and photostimulated properties of CdWO4 crystals,” in Optical Diagnostics of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 530–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Savchenko, I. B.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Schneegans, M.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. F.

S. P. S. Porto, J. F. Scott, “Raman spectra of CaWO4, SrWO4, CaMoO4, and SrMoO4,” Phys. Rev. 157, 716–719 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, V. B.

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

Shipulo, G. P.

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

Shmytko, I. M.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Shumrak, S. Z.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Silberman, E.

J. M. Stencel, J. Springer, E. Silberman, “Infrared and Raman multi-phonon spectra and structure of PbWO4,” J. Mol. Struct. 41, 11–17 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sinizin, V. V.

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

Song, J.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. M. Stencel, J. Springer, E. Silberman, “Infrared and Raman multi-phonon spectra and structure of PbWO4,” J. Mol. Struct. 41, 11–17 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Stankov, K. A.

K. A. Stankov, G. Marowsky, “High-efficient multicolor Q-switched Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 213–215 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stencel, J. M.

J. M. Stencel, J. Springer, E. Silberman, “Infrared and Raman multi-phonon spectra and structure of PbWO4,” J. Mol. Struct. 41, 11–17 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Syrus, V.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Takuma, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, M.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tolstoi, M. N.

A. M. Morozov, M. N. Tolstoi, P. P. Feofilov, “Neodymium luminescence in scheelite type crystals,” Opt. Spektrosk. 22, 258–265 (1967).

Ueda, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ustemenko, N. S.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

Valente, E.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

van der Maas, J. H.

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibrational properties of double tungstates of the MIMIII(WO4)2 family (MI = Li, Na, K; MIII = Bi, Cr),” J. Solid State Chem. 117, 177–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2, and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibration dynamics of the WOW and WOOW bridge bonds: polarized infrared and Raman spectra of monoclinic KBi(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 10,263–10,271 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Varitimos, T. E.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 47–53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 47–53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wybourne, B. G.

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earth (Interscience, New York, 1965).

Yishchakas, Yu.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Zhang, X. X.

W. L. Zhon, X. X. Zhang, B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock, W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 451–454.

Zhon, W. L.

W. L. Zhon, X. X. Zhang, B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock, W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 451–454.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. A. Stankov, G. Marowsky, “High-efficient multicolor Q-switched Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 213–215 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Capmany, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous wave laser radiation at 524 nm from a self-frequency-doubling laser of LaBGeO5:Nd3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 531–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nauk (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, N. S. Ustemenko, A. V. Gulin, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Raman-parametric interactions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystals: picosecond multi-component Stokes and anti-Stokes generation and nanosecond self-SRS conversion in human eye-safe 1.5-µm range,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 359, 179–183 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

Unpublished data from a private communication in the paper by G. Eckhardt, “Selection of Raman laser materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 1–8 (1966).

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Broadband emission and laser action of Cr3+ doped zinc tungstates at 1 µm wavelength,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1596–1600 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross-section of neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Findeisen, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient picosecond PbWO4 and two wavelengths KGd(WO4)2 Raman laser in the IR and visible,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 173–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. A. Pavlyuk, K. Kurbanov, N. V. Ivannikova, L. A. Polyakova, “Growth of CsLa(WO4)2:Nd3+ single crystals and investigations of their spectral and laser properties,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 24, 1341–1347 (1988).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (2)

J. M. Stencel, J. Springer, E. Silberman, “Infrared and Raman multi-phonon spectra and structure of PbWO4,” J. Mol. Struct. 41, 11–17 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2, and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349–352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibration dynamics of the WOW and WOOW bridge bonds: polarized infrared and Raman spectra of monoclinic KBi(WO4)2 single crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 10,263–10,271 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

R. K. Khanna, W. S. Brower, B. R. Guscott, E. R. Lippincott, “Laser induced Raman spectra of some tungstates and molybdates,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 72, 81–84 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, J. H. van der Maas, “Vibrational properties of double tungstates of the MIMIII(WO4)2 family (MI = Li, Na, K; MIII = Bi, Cr),” J. Solid State Chem. 117, 177–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, S. N. Bagaev, F. A. Kuznetsov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. Boulon, F. Bourgeois, “Monoclinic tungstates KDy(WO4)2 and KLu(WO4)2: new χ(3)-active crystals for laser Raman shifters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 37, L929–L932 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, X. Chen, A. Kholov, “Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal laser crystalline hosts NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 34, L1461–L1463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

A. Z. Grasyuk, S. B. Kurbasov, L. L. Losev, A. S. Lutsenko, A. A. Kaminskii, V. B. Semenov, “Determination of the SRS-gain coefficients in leucosapphire,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 25, 170–174 (1998).

Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, D. Grebe, H. J. Eichler, A. A. Pavlyuk, R. Macdonald, “Efficient multiwave Stokes and anti-Stokes operation of a Raman parametric laser based on a tetragonal NaLa(MoO4)2 crystal,” Kvant. Elektron. (Russia) 23, 199–201 (1996).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevitch, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, V. D. Ligun, “Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291–298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal: a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and cw and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7, 59–73 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

A. M. Morozov, M. N. Tolstoi, P. P. Feofilov, “Neodymium luminescence in scheelite type crystals,” Opt. Spektrosk. 22, 258–265 (1967).

Phys. Rev. (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

S. P. S. Porto, J. F. Scott, “Raman spectra of CaWO4, SrWO4, CaMoO4, and SrMoO4,” Phys. Rev. 157, 716–719 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 801–818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 47–53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (6)

A. A. Kaminskii, “On the lows of crystal-field disorder of Ln3+ ions in insulating crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 102, 389–397 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of RT3+ ions in crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Analysis of spectral line intensities of TR3+ ions in disordered crystal systems,” Phys. Status Solidi A 26, K21–K26 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission of KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5, K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagayev, A. A. Pavlyuk, F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 281–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. Nishioka, Y. Kubota, K. Ueda, H. Takuma, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, “New optical phenomena in laser insulating crystal-hosts with third-order nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Status Solidi A 148, 619–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

L. F. Johnson, K. Nassau, “Infrared fluorescence and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. S. Kornienko, G. V. Maksimova, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, G. P. Shipulo, “A continuous optical quantum generator on CaWO4 with Nd3+ at room temperature,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 31–35 (1965).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. (1)

K. Andryunas, Yu. Yishchakas, V. Kobelka, I. A. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, V. Syrus, “Self-SRS conversion of Nd3+ laser emission in crystals of double tungstates,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 42, 333–365 (1985).

Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Li, “Spectroscopic quality of laser media with Nd3+ and Pm3+ ions,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 1, 567–571 (1975).

Other (10)

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “End-pumped intercavity solid-state Raman lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg, M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 249–251.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, F. de Notaristefani, M. Diomez, R. Faccini, A. Festinest, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Mattioli, M. Montechhi, G. Organitini, S. Paoletti, E. Valente, “Measurements of refractive index on PbWO4,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 293–295.

B. G. Wybourne, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earth (Interscience, New York, 1965).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, ed., Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982), Vol. 1.

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

N. V. Klassen, S. Z. Shumrak, I. M. Shmytko, A. B. Kulakov, G. A. Emelchenko, B. S. Redkin, A. V. Kosenko, S. I. Rybchenko, I. B. Savchenko, V. V. Sinizin, A. F. Gurov, “Relation between real crystalline structure and properties of scintillators,” in International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and Their Applications (Delft University, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996), p. 475–482.

V. G. Bondar, S. F. Burachas, K. A. Katrunov, V. P. Martynov, V. D. Ryzhikov, “Effects of structure microdefects on scintillation and photostimulated properties of CdWO4 crystals,” in Optical Diagnostics of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, S. V. Svechnikov, M. Y. Valakh, eds., Proc. SPIE3359, 530–533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Zhon, X. X. Zhang, B. H. T. Chai, “Laser oscillation at 1059 nm of a new laser crystal: Nd3+ doped NaY(WO4)2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. R. Pollock, W. R. Bosenberg, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 451–454.

G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 100.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum identification of intermanifold 4 I 9/2J′ band areas of tetragonal PbWO4:Nd3+ single crystal (⊥c-axis) at 300 K for sample thicknesses of approximately 1 mm (solid curve) and 10 mm (dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependences of β JJ(X Nd) and simplified scheme of intermanifold 4 F 3/24 I J luminescence transitions for Nd3+-doped material. For β J,15/2(X Nd) the scale was increased ten times. The dashed lines indicate the data for Nd3+ ions in PbWO4 and NaY(WO4)2 tungstates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Orientational RT luminescence spectra (4 F 3/24 I 11/2 and 4 F 3/24 I 13/2 laser channels) of Nd3+ ions in NaY(WO4)2 crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the experimental setup for (a) pulsed SE excitation of Nd3+ ions in PbWO4 and NaY(WO4)2 crystals under Xe flash-lamp pumping; (b) cw laser measurements in PbWO4:Nd3+ crystals under cw Ti3+:Al2O3 laser pumping; (c) SRS measurements with χ(3)-active tetragonal PbWO4, NaY(WO4)2, and CaWO4, as well as monoclinic ZnWO4 and CdWO4 tungstate crystals under picosecond Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 laser pumping; (d) pumping of a PbWO4 Raman laser by 1-µm emission of a Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 picosecond laser. See the text for details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Orientational luminescence spectra at 77 and 300 K (4 F 3/24 I 11/2 lasing channel) and crystal-structure splitting scheme of the 4 F 3/2 and 4 I 11/2 manifolds at 77 K of Nd3+ ions in a PbWO4 crystal. The Stark-level positions are given in inverse centimeters, and the wavelength of transitions between positions is in micrometers. The lines in the spectra and the corresponding transitions in the scheme are denoted by the same numbering systems. The thick arrows denote SE transitions, which were excited at 300 K. The tick marks show the splitting of the metastable laser 4 F 3/2 state. The asterisks and dashed lines indicate that these data must be verified. The other notations are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Orientational absorption spectra (4 I 9/24 F 5/2 + 2 H(2)9/2 intermanifold transitions) of Nd3+ in PbWO4 crystals. Arrows indicate the pumping wavelengths of a cw tunable Ti3+:Al2O3 laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Input–output dependences of a Nd3+:PbWO4 laser under cw Ti3+:Al2O3 laser emission pumped for two different output resonator–mirror transmissions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

RT spontaneous Raman scattering (A g + B g + E g ) spectra of the tetragonal PbWO4 single crystal for two excitation geometries: (a) c(aa)c and (b) a(cc)a. The Raman frequencies of all the lines are given in inverse centimeters.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

RT spontaneous Raman scattering (A g + B g + E g ) spectra of the tetragonal NaY(WO4)2 single crystal for two excitation geometries: (a) c(aa)c and (b) a(cc)a. Notations as in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

RT spontaneous Raman scattering (A g + B g + E g ) spectra of the tetragonal CaWO4 single crystals for two excitation geometries: (a) c(aa)c and (b) a(cc)a. Notations as in Fig. 8.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

RT (a) SRS and (b) RFWM generation c(aa)c spectra of tetragonal PbWO4 single crystals and (c) wavelength dependence of the spectral analyzing system. The lines in the spectra and corresponding wavelengths in Table 7 are denoted by the same numbering system. The connection of generated Stokes and anti-Stokes components to the SRS-active vibration mode ω R1 = 901 cm-1 of the crystal is indicated by tick marks. Pumping with fundamental wavelengths at λ f1 = 1.06415 µm and λ f2 (SHG) = 0.53207 µm is marked by asterisks.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

RT (a) SRS and (b) RFWM generation c(aa)c spectra of tetragonal NaY(WO4)2 single crystals and (c) c(≈aa)c excitation geometries. The connection of the generated Stokes and anti-Stokes components to SRS-active vibration modes ω R1 = 914 cm-1 and ω R2 = 328 cm-1 of crystal is indicated by tick marks. The other notations are as in Fig. 11.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

RT SRS and RFWM generation c(aa)c spectrum of tetragonal CaWO4 single crystals. The connection of the generated Stokes and anti-Stokes components to SRS-active vibration mode ω R1 = 908 cm-1 of the crystal is indicated by tick marks. The other notations are as in Fig. 11.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

RT SRS and RFWM generation b(≈cc)b spectra of monoclinic ZnWO4 and CdWO4 single crystals. The connection of the generated Stokes and anti-Stokes components to SRS-active vibration modes of these crystals ω R1 = 907 cm-1 and ω R1 = 890 cm-1 is indicated by tick marks. The other notations are as in Fig. 11.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

First-Stokes generation c(aa)c spectrum of a Raman laser on the base of a tetragonal PbWO4 crystal and its second-harmonic emission in the visible. The wavelength of all the lines is given in micrometers. The pumping wavelength at λ f1 = 1.06415 µm is marked by an asterisk.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Known Molybdate and Tungstate Laser Crystals and Their Generating Activator Ions

Tables Icon

Table 2 SRS-Active Molybdate and Tungstate Crystals for Raman Shifters and Self-SRS Lasersa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Crystallographic Data for the Tungstate Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 4 Spectroscopic Characteristicsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Pulsed and cw Characteristicsa

Tables Icon

Table 6 Some RT Spectroscopic Characteristicsa

Tables Icon

Table 7 Spectral Compositions of Multiple Stokes and Anti-Stokes Generation and SRS-Active Optical Vibration Modesa

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σeeff=λSE2βJJ8πn¯2Δνlumeffτrad,
βJJ=AJJed/J AJJed,
AJJed=64πe23h2J+1λ¯3n¯n¯+229 sJJed.
scalced=t Ωt|4fNαSLJUt4fNαSLJ|2.
sexped=3hc2J+18π3e3λ¯9n¯n¯2+22 N0-1  kλdλ,
XNd4F3/2=Ω4/Ω6.
βJJXNd=aJXNd+bJλ¯JJ3JaJXNd+bJλ¯JJ3,
aJ=|4F3/2U44IJ|2,  bJ=|4F3/2U64IJ|2,
τ  T2=1/πΔνR,
dISt1ldl=gRIflISt1l+IfλdσdΩ NΔΩgRIflISt1l+ISt1l=0,
gR=2λSt12NπnSt12hνfΔνRdσdΩ.

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