Abstract

We propose an optical code division multiple-access (OCDMA) system that uses in-fiber chirped moiré gratings (CMG’s) for encoding and decoding of broadband pulses. In reflection the wavelength-selective and dispersive nature of CMG’s can be used to implement wavelength-encoding/temporal-spreading OCDMA. We give examples of codes designed around the constraints imposed by the encoding devices and present numerical simulations that demonstrate the proposed concept.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, “Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149–168 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code-division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 129–157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, S. Juma, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures,” Opt. Lett. 22, 402–404 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, “Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in Bragg gratings for wavelength-division-multiplexing and code-division multiple access,” J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2117–2129 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, J. Feinberg, “One-dimensional photonic crystals for CDMA,” in Multimedia Networks: Security, Displays, Terminals, and Gateways, V. Bove, B. Derryberry, C. R. Holliday, L. S. Lome, V. Markandey, A. G. Teschev, B. Vasudev, eds., Proc. SPIE3228, 408–417 (1997).
  6. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 397–405 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.
  8. L. Tančevski, I. Andonovic, “Wavelength-hopping/time-spreading code-division multiple-access systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1388–1390 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, S. B. Poole, “Wide-band Fabry–Pérot-like filters in optical fiber,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 78–80 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Martijn de Sterke, J. N. Bright, P. A. Krug, T. E. Hammon, “Observation of an optical Wannier–Stark ladder,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 2365–2370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, “Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by dual-phase-mask exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1473–1475 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Poladian, “Group delay reconstruction for fiber Bragg gratings in reflection and transmission,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1571–1573 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. R. Chen, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, “Transmission filters with multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1283–1285 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. The notation (m|n) represents the number of ways of selecting n objects from a set of m objects regardless of order and is defined as (m|n) = [m!/n!(m - n)!].
  17. A. A. Shaar, P. A. Davies, “A survey of one-coincidence sequences for frequency-hopped spread-spectrum systems,” IEE Proc. F 131, 719–724 (1984).
  18. E. Jugl, T. Kuhwald, K. Iversen, “Algorithm for construction of (0,1)-matrix codes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 227–229 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, R. I. Laming, “Chirped moiré fiber gratings operating on two-wavelength channels for use as dual-channel dispersion compensators,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 84–86 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. P. Sardesai, C.-C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, “A femtosecond code-division multiple-access communication system test bed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1953–1964 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, “Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 397–405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, R. I. Laming, “Chirped moiré fiber gratings operating on two-wavelength channels for use as dual-channel dispersion compensators,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 84–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Sardesai, C.-C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, “A femtosecond code-division multiple-access communication system test bed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1953–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, “Transmission filters with multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1283–1285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, “Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in Bragg gratings for wavelength-division-multiplexing and code-division multiple access,” J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2117–2129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Martijn de Sterke, J. N. Bright, P. A. Krug, T. E. Hammon, “Observation of an optical Wannier–Stark ladder,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 2365–2370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, “Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by dual-phase-mask exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1473–1475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Poladian, “Group delay reconstruction for fiber Bragg gratings in reflection and transmission,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1571–1573 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code-division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 129–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, S. Juma, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures,” Opt. Lett. 22, 402–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Jugl, T. Kuhwald, K. Iversen, “Algorithm for construction of (0,1)-matrix codes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 227–229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, “Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, S. B. Poole, “Wide-band Fabry–Pérot-like filters in optical fiber,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 78–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Tančevski, I. Andonovic, “Wavelength-hopping/time-spreading code-division multiple-access systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1388–1390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. A. Shaar, P. A. Davies, “A survey of one-coincidence sequences for frequency-hopped spread-spectrum systems,” IEE Proc. F 131, 719–724 (1984).

Aitchison, J. S.

Andonovic, I.

L. Tančevski, I. Andonovic, “Wavelength-hopping/time-spreading code-division multiple-access systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1388–1390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, S. D.

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, “Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in Bragg gratings for wavelength-division-multiplexing and code-division multiple access,” J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2117–2129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, S. Juma, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures,” Opt. Lett. 22, 402–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, “Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by dual-phase-mask exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1473–1475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, S. B. Poole, “Wide-band Fabry–Pérot-like filters in optical fiber,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 78–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bright, J. N.

C. Martijn de Sterke, J. N. Bright, P. A. Krug, T. E. Hammon, “Observation of an optical Wannier–Stark ladder,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 2365–2370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

Chen, L. R.

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, “Transmission filters with multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1283–1285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, “Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in Bragg gratings for wavelength-division-multiplexing and code-division multiple access,” J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2117–2129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, S. Juma, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures,” Opt. Lett. 22, 402–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, D. J. F.

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, “Transmission filters with multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1283–1285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davies, P. A.

A. A. Shaar, P. A. Davies, “A survey of one-coincidence sequences for frequency-hopped spread-spectrum systems,” IEE Proc. F 131, 719–724 (1984).

De La Rue, R. M.

Dong, L.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, M. K.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, R. I. Laming, “Chirped moiré fiber gratings operating on two-wavelength channels for use as dual-channel dispersion compensators,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 84–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erlig, H.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, J. Feinberg, “One-dimensional photonic crystals for CDMA,” in Multimedia Networks: Security, Displays, Terminals, and Gateways, V. Bove, B. Derryberry, C. R. Holliday, L. S. Lome, V. Markandey, A. G. Teschev, B. Vasudev, eds., Proc. SPIE3228, 408–417 (1997).

Everall, L. A.

Fathallah, H.

Feinberg, J.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, J. Feinberg, “One-dimensional photonic crystals for CDMA,” in Multimedia Networks: Security, Displays, Terminals, and Gateways, V. Bove, B. Derryberry, C. R. Holliday, L. S. Lome, V. Markandey, A. G. Teschev, B. Vasudev, eds., Proc. SPIE3228, 408–417 (1997).

Fetterman, H. R.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, J. Feinberg, “One-dimensional photonic crystals for CDMA,” in Multimedia Networks: Security, Displays, Terminals, and Gateways, V. Bove, B. Derryberry, C. R. Holliday, L. S. Lome, V. Markandey, A. G. Teschev, B. Vasudev, eds., Proc. SPIE3228, 408–417 (1997).

Fu, A.

H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.

Geiger, H.

H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.

Griffin, R. A.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code-division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 129–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hammon, T. E.

C. Martijn de Sterke, J. N. Bright, P. A. Krug, T. E. Hammon, “Observation of an optical Wannier–Stark ladder,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 2365–2370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, R. I. Laming, “Chirped moiré fiber gratings operating on two-wavelength channels for use as dual-channel dispersion compensators,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 84–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.

Iversen, K.

E. Jugl, T. Kuhwald, K. Iversen, “Algorithm for construction of (0,1)-matrix codes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 227–229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jugl, E.

E. Jugl, T. Kuhwald, K. Iversen, “Algorithm for construction of (0,1)-matrix codes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 227–229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juma, S.

Karafolas, N.

N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, “Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karkhanehchi, M. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

C. Martijn de Sterke, J. N. Bright, P. A. Krug, T. E. Hammon, “Observation of an optical Wannier–Stark ladder,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 2365–2370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuhwald, T.

E. Jugl, T. Kuhwald, K. Iversen, “Algorithm for construction of (0,1)-matrix codes,” Electron. Lett. 33, 227–229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, R. I. Laming, “Chirped moiré fiber gratings operating on two-wavelength channels for use as dual-channel dispersion compensators,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 84–86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.

LaRochelle, S.

Liu, X.

Loka, H. S.

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martijn de Sterke, C.

C. Martijn de Sterke, J. N. Bright, P. A. Krug, T. E. Hammon, “Observation of an optical Wannier–Stark ladder,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 2365–2370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pendock, G. J.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code-division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 129–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.

Poladian, L.

Poole, S. B.

G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, S. B. Poole, “Wide-band Fabry–Pérot-like filters in optical fiber,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 78–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Geiger, A. Fu, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, “Demonstration of a simple CDMA transmitter and receiver using sampled fiber gratings,” in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 337–338.

Rusch, L. A.

Sampson, D. D.

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, R. A. Griffin, “Photonic code-division multiple-access communications,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 16, 129–157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sardesai, H. P.

Shaar, A. A.

A. A. Shaar, P. A. Davies, “A survey of one-coincidence sequences for frequency-hopped spread-spectrum systems,” IEE Proc. F 131, 719–724 (1984).

Sipe, J. E.

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, “Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in Bragg gratings for wavelength-division-multiplexing and code-division multiple access,” J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2117–2129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, S. Juma, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures,” Opt. Lett. 22, 402–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. W. E.

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, “Transmission filters with multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1283–1285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, “Applications of ultrashort pulse propagation in Bragg gratings for wavelength-division-multiplexing and code-division multiple access,” J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2117–2129 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, J. E. Sipe, S. Juma, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures,” Opt. Lett. 22, 402–404 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugden, K.

L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, “Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by dual-phase-mask exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1473–1475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, S. B. Poole, “Wide-band Fabry–Pérot-like filters in optical fiber,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 78–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tam, R.

L. R. Chen, H. S. Loka, D. J. F. Cooper, P. W. E. Smith, R. Tam, X. Gu, “Fabrication of transmission filters with single or multiple flattened passbands based on chirped Moiré gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 584–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tancevski, L.

L. Tančevski, I. Andonovic, “Wavelength-hopping/time-spreading code-division multiple-access systems,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1388–1390 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taverner, D.

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. N. Zervas, L. Reekie, L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, “Investigation of fiber grating-based performance limits in pulse stretching and recompression schemes using bidirectional reflection from a linearly chirped fiber grating,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1436–1438 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Town, G. E.

G. E. Town, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, S. B. Poole, “Wide-band Fabry–Pérot-like filters in optical fiber,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 78–80 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uttamchandani, D.

N. Karafolas, D. Uttamchandani, “Optical fiber code division multiple access networks: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 149–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Erlig, H. R. Fetterman, J. Feinberg, “One-dimensional photonic crystals for CDMA,” in Multimedia Networks: Security, Displays, Terminals, and Gateways, V. Bove, B. Derryberry, C. R. Holliday, L. S. Lome, V. Markandey, A. G. Teschev, B. Vasudev, eds., Proc. SPIE3228, 408–417 (1997).

Weiner, A. M.

H. P. Sardesai, C.-C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, “A femtosecond code-division multiple-access communication system test bed,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1953–1964 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

L. A. Everall, K. Sugden, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, X. Liu, J. S. Aitchison, R. M. De La Rue, “Fabrication of multipassband moiré resonators in fibers by dual-phase-mask exposure method,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1473–1475 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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The notation (m|n) represents the number of ways of selecting n objects from a set of m objects regardless of order and is defined as (m|n) = [m!/n!(m - n)!].

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Reflection response of a 3-cm-long CMG with δn = 8.0 × 10-4, λ1 = 2n 0Λ1 0 = 1550.0 nm, λ2 = 2n 0Λ2 0 = 1550.2 nm, and equal chirp parameters for both gratings δΛ1 = δΛ2 = dΛ = 5.0 × 10-14 nm2/m; (b) corresponding reflected group delay of the CMG and (c) its physically reversed structure. The spikes in the group delay occur where the phase of the reflection coefficient changes by π.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of (a) encoding and (b) decoding an ultrashort broadband pulse with CMG’s. The CMG is modeled as a multiwavelength filter (or discrete set of wavelength filters) with corresponding time delay lines for each filtered wavelength component. The corresponding code illustrated is c = [1, 2, … , N]. Different users (codes) would be defined by different spectral slicing patterns (i.e., different wavelength filters) and their corresponding time delay patterns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Implementation of CMG encoders–decoders in an OCDMA system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of encoding a 0.5-ps transform-limited Gaussian pulse. (a) Spectral response of the CMG’s that correspond to the three codes outlined in the text and (b) corresponding encoded wave forms. The dotted lines show the time slots (chips).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation of proper and improper decoding of encoded wave forms in Fig. 4(b). Decoded wave forms: (a) c1dec(t), (b) c2dec(t), and (c) c3dec(t); (d) the decoded wave form of c1enc(t) + c2enc(t) + c3enc(t). Note the similarity with c1dec(t); additional multiuser interference can be suppressed by means of time gating. All decoding was performed with the decoder for code c 1. The dotted lines show the time slots (chips).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

P error as a function of number simultaneous users.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximum Number of Codes and Original m Codes for the Different Cases Used in the Performance Analysis Given in Subsection 3.B

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nz=n0+δn cos2πzΛ1+δn cos2πzΛ2=n0+Δnzcos2πzΛs,
Nm-j=1mλmaxj-λminj.
k=0m-1N-kw|w=k=0m-1N-kw!w!N-k+1w!
σ2=K-1σ¯i,j2,
σi,j2=1Nτ=0N-1Hi,jτ-H¯i,j2,
Hi,jτ=s=1N hcis, cjs+τ,  0τN,
h(a, b)=0,ab1,a=b;
SIR=w2σ2=w2K-1σ¯i,j2,
Perror=QSIR,
Qx=12πxdt exp-t22.

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