Abstract

Different definitions for estimating the degree of changes in signal polarization measured by lidar measurements are used both to detect the presence of nonspherical aerosol particles and to estimate their shape and density. Our aim is to provide a tool for calculation and interpretation of changes in polarization that are due to aerosol backscatter measured by the lidar technique. An overview of several techniques used to calculate linear depolarization from two-channel lidar measurements is given. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are analyzed when we apply them on a lidar vertical profile. Systematic errors are also discussed. First, an overview of different estimations of polarizability of atmospheric molecules is given. The presence of signal with orthogonal polarization in each channel (cross talk) is a source of error in depolarization estimation. It is calculated at various degrees of contamination, and the total uncertainty on depolarization definition is retrieved.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 533–535 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. I. Carswell, “Lidar measurements of the atmosphere,” Can. J. Phys. 61, 378–395 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.
  6. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Polarization properties of lidar backscattering from clouds,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1530–1535 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 653–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratio,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1639–1643 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscattering ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,219–11,235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.
  16. F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.
  17. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  18. N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, “The polarization of laser light scattered by gases,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334–349 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–7901 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. For nomenclature about molecular scattering refer to A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 42–48 (1982).
  21. See V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburd, H. Jager, “Optical parameters of contrails from lidar measurements: linear depolarization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3715–3718 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchechorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. Alvarez, Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 417, Hampton, Va. 23681-0001; ; e-mail address j.m.alvarez@larc.nasa.gov (personal communication).

1997

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

See V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburd, H. Jager, “Optical parameters of contrails from lidar measurements: linear depolarization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3715–3718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscattering ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,219–11,235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchechorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratio,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1639–1643 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–7901 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 653–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. I. Carswell, “Lidar measurements of the atmosphere,” Can. J. Phys. 61, 378–395 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

For nomenclature about molecular scattering refer to A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 42–48 (1982).

1981

1979

1973

1960

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, “The polarization of laser light scattered by gases,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334–349 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

Alvarez, J. M.

J. M. Alvarez, Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 417, Hampton, Va. 23681-0001; ; e-mail address j.m.alvarez@larc.nasa.gov (personal communication).

Barnes, J.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–7901 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Bigbon, N. S.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boschi, E.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bridge, N. J.

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, “The polarization of laser light scattered by gases,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334–349 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. U.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Buckingham, A. D.

N. J. Bridge, A. D. Buckingham, “The polarization of laser light scattered by gases,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 334–349 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Butler, F.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

Carswell, A. I.

A. I. Carswell, “Lidar measurements of the atmosphere,” Can. J. Phys. 61, 378–395 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Polarization properties of lidar backscattering from clouds,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1530–1535 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Carter, A. F.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchechorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D’Altorio, A.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

David, C.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Deshler, T.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

Di Donfrancesco, G.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Donovan, D.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Fernald, F. G.

Fierli, F.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Freudenthaler, V.

See V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburd, H. Jager, “Optical parameters of contrails from lidar measurements: linear depolarization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3715–3718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, K. H.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscattering ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,219–11,235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Goutail, F.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Gross, M.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Hansen, G.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Hauchechorne, A.

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchechorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Hayashi, M.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Homburd, F.

See V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburd, H. Jager, “Optical parameters of contrails from lidar measurements: linear depolarization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3715–3718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, U. P.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Ismail, S.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jager, H.

See V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburd, H. Jager, “Optical parameters of contrails from lidar measurements: linear depolarization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3715–3718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Jordan, J.

O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratio,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1639–1643 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, B.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Langer, M.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mandolini, S.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Masci, F.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

McCormick, M. P.

McDermid, I. S.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

McGee, T.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Megie, G.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Mielke, B.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Nagai, T.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Nagatani, M.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Nakura, Y.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nardi, B.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

Nedeljkovic, D.

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchechorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neuber, R.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Osborn, M.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Pal, S. R.

Pulvirenti, L.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Redaelli, G.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Rizi, V.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Robinette, P. A.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

Sakai, T.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarkissian, A.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, H. J.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scheuch, P.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Steinbrecht, W.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Susumu, K.

T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

Toon, O.

O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. W.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Visconti, G.

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

von Zahn, U.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Winker, D.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

Young, A. T.

For nomenclature about molecular scattering refer to A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 42–48 (1982).

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 533–535 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

A. I. Carswell, “Lidar measurements of the atmosphere,” Can. J. Phys. 61, 378–395 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

H. J. Schafer, P. Scheuch, M. Langer, K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, B. Knudsen, “Lidar observations of PSC at Andoya, Norway, in January 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1307–1310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Browell, F. Butler, S. Ismail, P. A. Robinette, A. F. Carter, N. S. Bigbon, O. W. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observation in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

See V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburd, H. Jager, “Optical parameters of contrails from lidar measurements: linear depolarization,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3715–3718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Toon, E. V. Browell, S. Kinne, J. Jordan, “Analysis of lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 393–396 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, E. Boschi, “Continuous lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone after the Pinatubo eruption. Part 1: DIAL ozone retrieval in presence of stratospheric aerosol layers,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2865–2868 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchechorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Hayashi, M. Nagatani, K. Shiraishi, H. Adachi, T. Sakai, K. Susumu, Y. Nakura, “PSC observed by lidar over Spitsbergen in the winter 1994/1995: liquid particles and vertical ‘sandwich’ structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,829–10,840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, “Lidar estimation of stratospheric aerosol properties: surface, volume and extinction to backscattering ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,219–11,235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

For nomenclature about molecular scattering refer to A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Today 35(1), 42–48 (1982).

Planet. Space Sci.

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–7901 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

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[CrossRef]

Other

J. M. Alvarez, Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 417, Hampton, Va. 23681-0001; ; e-mail address j.m.alvarez@larc.nasa.gov (personal communication).

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscatter sonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the 18th Quadriennal Ozone Symposium 1996 and Tropospheric Ozone Workshop, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 879–882.

F. Fierli, F. Cairo, L. Pulvirenti, B. Nardi, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, A. Hauchechorne, F. Goutail, A. Sarkissian, T. Deshler, V. Rizi, G. Redaelli, G. Visconti, B. Knudsen, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, “January 23 1996 PSC above Andoya: different aerosol characteristics retrieval from backscatter data, comparison with optical particle counter measurements and interpretation by Lagrangian box modeling,” in Polar Stratospheric Ozone 1997, Proceedings of the Fourth European Symposium, Publication 18032, N. R. P. Harris, I. Kilbane-Dawe, G. T. Amanatidis, eds. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Firenze, Italy, 1998), pp. 191–193.

W. Steinbrecht, H. Jager, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Barnes, G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, C. David, S. Godin, D. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, M. Gross, T. McGee, F. Masci, A. D’Altorio, V. Rizi, G. Visconti, I. S. McDermid, G. Megie, B. Mielke, B. Stein, C. Wedekind, T. Nagai, O. Uchino, H. Nakane, M. Osborn, D. Winker, “NDSC intercomparison of stratospheric aerosol processing algorithms,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar: Selected Papers of the 18th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandiner, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), pp. 501–504.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Backscattering profiles from LABS. From left to right: parallel polarized signal P , perpendicular polarized signal P . P and P are shown in arbitrary units. Boxes define different layers, as described in Section 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depolarization parameters, as defined in Tables 1 and 2 with error bars.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of cross talk between parallel and perpendicular channels on the depolarization parameters. Four degrees of cross talk were chosen: (1) t , r = 0.001; (2) t , r = 0.005; (3) t , r = 0.01; (4) t , r = 0.02. Solid black curve, unaffected situation.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definitions of Depolarization Parameters and References in Scientific Literature

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mathematical Expressions of Depolarization Parameters, Main Calculation Features, and Mathematical Expression Function of R, δ, and R

Tables Icon

Table 3 Values of Different Depolarization Parameters in Three Layers and in Background Aerosol Atmosphere

Tables Icon

Table 4 Typical Errors Due to Cross Talk and to Wrong Estimate of the Molecular Perpendicular Polarizationa

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P,z=P0cτ2 C,β+βz2 exp-2 0z σξdξ,
β,=βa,+βm,.
R=βm+βm+βa+βaβm+βm.
R=βm+βaβm,
R=βm+βaβm.
δ=CPCP=CC K.
δm=K CC,
δ=δmKK0,
δT=δmPK0P+δmP.
σmol=8π3 β,
σaer=10a1+a2logβ+a3logβ2.
δ2=δ1-δm1-δm2R.
D=KK0.
D1=D2δm1δm2-δm1/δm2-1R.
P Ctβm+βa+tβm+βa,
P Crβm+βa+rβm+βa,
δ=δ˜tϕ-rδmrδm-δ˜tϕ,
R=R˜tr+rδm-R˜rt+tδmrt-tr,
R=R˜rt+tδm-R˜tr+rδmrt-tr,
ϕ=r+δmrt+δmt

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