Abstract

A phantom based on a polyurethane system that replicates the optical properties of tissue for use in near-infrared imaging is described. The absorption properties of tissue are simulated by a dye that absorbs in the near infrared, and the scattering properties are simulated by TiO2 particles. The scattering and absorption coefficients of the plastic were measured with a new technique based on time-resolved transmission through two slabs of materials that have different thicknesses. An image of a representative phantom was obtained from time-gated transmission.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. L. Keyes, “Optical testing and characterization,” in Engineering Plastics, C. A. Dostal, ed. Vol. 2 of Engineered Materials Handbook (ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988), pp. 594–598.
  5. D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–50.
  6. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Contini, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, “Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4587–4599 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Aronson, “Boundary conditions for diffusion of light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2532–2539 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bassini, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, D. Contini, “Independence of the diffusion coefficient from absorption: experimental and numerical evidence,” Opt. Lett. 22, 853–855 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Aronson, “Boundary conditions for diffusion of light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2532–2539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Aronson, R.

Bassini, M.

Chance, B.

Contini, D.

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grosenick, D.

U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keyes, D. L.

D. L. Keyes, “Optical testing and characterization,” in Engineering Plastics, C. A. Dostal, ed. Vol. 2 of Engineered Materials Handbook (ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988), pp. 594–598.

Martelli, F.

Oda, M.

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Rinneberg, H.

U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, R.

U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukowski, U.

U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Zaccanti, G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

M. Firbank, D. T. Delpy, “A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infra-red imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sukowski, R. Schubert, D. Grosenick, H. Rinneberg, “Preparation of solid phantoms with defined scattering and absorption properties for optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1823–1844 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. L. Keyes, “Optical testing and characterization,” in Engineering Plastics, C. A. Dostal, ed. Vol. 2 of Engineered Materials Handbook (ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988), pp. 594–598.

D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–50.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental time-dependent ratio η obtained from measurements of plastic 1, where s 1 = 17.4 mm and s 2 = 27.4 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental time-integrated ratio R measured through plastic 1 as a function of s 1 (filled circles), where s 2 = 27.4 mm for each circle. The curve fit yielded an absorption coefficient of 0.0023 mm-1 and is shown as a dotted curve. Theoretical curves calculated with μ a = 0, 0.001, 0.003 mm-1 are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental time-integrated ratio R measured through plastic 2 as a function of s 1 (filled circles), where s 2 = 24.4 mm for each circle. The curve fit yielded an absorption coefficient of 0.0245 mm-1 and is shown in the figure as a dotted curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration of the phantom. The dimensions of the bulk are 150 mm × 200 mm × 40 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanned image of the phantom from time integration of the first 0.8 ns of the time-resolved transmission.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scattering Coefficient of Plastics 1 and 2 Obtained from the Curve Fit of the Time-Dependent Ratio

Tables Icon

Table 2 Physical and Optical Parameters of Inclusions Used in the Phantom

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ts, t=A exp-μavt24πDv3/2t5/2m=-z1,m exp-z1,m24Dvt-z2,m exp- z2,m24Dvt,
ηt=lnTs1, tTs2, t.
R=0 Ts1, tdt0 Ts2, tdt.

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