Abstract

A multiple-pass cell for mid-IR spectrometry that has been designed to operate in an evacuable environmental chamber is described. Using this new modified White arrangement, we can significantly increase the path length while keeping the spectrometric beam stable. An approximate expression that ties the number of reflections to the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in multiple-reflection cells is derived.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. U. White, “Long optical path of large aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285–288 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  5. K. H. Becker, “EUPHORE, The European Photoreactor.” The construction and operation of an outdoor smog chamber in valencia for studying mechanisms of photochemical processes and their modeling in the polluted air of different European regions. Design and technical development of the European photoreactor and first experimental results. (European Community, Brussels, 1996).
  6. H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Horn, G. C. Pimentel, “2.5-km low temperature multiple-reflection cell,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1892–1898 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. O. Schulz-DuBois, “Generation of square lattice of focal points by a modified white cell,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1391–1393 (1973).
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  9. D. R. Herriot, H. J. Schulte, “Folded optical delay lines,” Appl. Opt. 4, 883–889 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. MacManus, P. L. Kebabian, M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. L. Hanst, “Spectrometric methods for air pollution measurement,” in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. L. Metcalf, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, pp. 91–213.
  12. J. White, “Very long optical path in air,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 411–416 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).
  14. S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Chernin, E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–57 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. L. Vitushkin, L. F. Vitushkin, “Design of a multipass optical cell based on the use of a shift corner cubes and right- angle prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 162–165 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).
  19. P. Werle, F. Slemr, “Signal-to-noise analysis in laser absorption spectrometers using optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 30, 430–434 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

1998

1997

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

1996

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1988

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

1973

1971

1965

1942

Akimoto, H.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barskaya, E. G.

Becker, K. H.

K. H. Becker, “EUPHORE, The European Photoreactor.” The construction and operation of an outdoor smog chamber in valencia for studying mechanisms of photochemical processes and their modeling in the polluted air of different European regions. Design and technical development of the European photoreactor and first experimental results. (European Community, Brussels, 1996).

Bergqvist, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, H. W.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carlier, P.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Chernin, S. M.

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–57 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clerbaux, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demtroeder, W.

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

Doussin, J. F.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Durand-Jolibois, R.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Fayt, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Galle, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goutail, F.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, “Spectrometric methods for air pollution measurement,” in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. L. Metcalf, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, pp. 91–213.

Hausmann, M.

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).

Haussmann, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, D. R.

Horn, D.

Hoshimo, M.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, G.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

MacManus, J. B.

Monod, A.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Nunes-Pinharanda, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, M.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pimentel, G. C.

Pitts, J. N.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. N. J.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Plane, J. M. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).

Pommereau, J. P.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pundt, I.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, D.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).

Rudolph, T.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakamaki, F.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, H. J.

Schulz-DuBois, E. O.

Simon, P. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

Smith, N.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tuazon, E. C.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vitushkin, A. L.

Vitushkin, L. F.

Wallington, T. J.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Washida, N.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

White, J.

White, J. U.

Winer, A. M.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

Analysis

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Environ.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Spectrochim. Acta A

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. L. Hanst, “Spectrometric methods for air pollution measurement,” in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. L. Metcalf, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, pp. 91–213.

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).

K. H. Becker, “EUPHORE, The European Photoreactor.” The construction and operation of an outdoor smog chamber in valencia for studying mechanisms of photochemical processes and their modeling in the polluted air of different European regions. Design and technical development of the European photoreactor and first experimental results. (European Community, Brussels, 1996).

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

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