Abstract

A multiple-pass cell for mid-IR spectrometry that has been designed to operate in an evacuable environmental chamber is described. Using this new modified White arrangement, we can significantly increase the path length while keeping the spectrometric beam stable. An approximate expression that ties the number of reflections to the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in multiple-reflection cells is derived.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. U. White, “Long optical path of large aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 285–288 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  5. K. H. Becker, “EUPHORE, The European Photoreactor.” The construction and operation of an outdoor smog chamber in valencia for studying mechanisms of photochemical processes and their modeling in the polluted air of different European regions. Design and technical development of the European photoreactor and first experimental results. (European Community, Brussels, 1996).
  6. H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Horn, G. C. Pimentel, “2.5-km low temperature multiple-reflection cell,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1892–1898 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. O. Schulz-DuBois, “Generation of square lattice of focal points by a modified white cell,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1391–1393 (1973).
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  9. D. R. Herriot, H. J. Schulte, “Folded optical delay lines,” Appl. Opt. 4, 883–889 (1965).
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  10. J. B. MacManus, P. L. Kebabian, M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. L. Hanst, “Spectrometric methods for air pollution measurement,” in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. L. Metcalf, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, pp. 91–213.
  12. J. White, “Very long optical path in air,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 411–416 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Chernin, E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–57 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. L. Vitushkin, L. F. Vitushkin, “Design of a multipass optical cell based on the use of a shift corner cubes and right- angle prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 162–165 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).
  19. P. Werle, F. Slemr, “Signal-to-noise analysis in laser absorption spectrometers using optical multipass cells,” Appl. Opt. 30, 430–434 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

1998

1997

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

1996

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1988

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

1973

1971

1965

1942

Akimoto, H.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barskaya, E. G.

Becker, K. H.

K. H. Becker, “EUPHORE, The European Photoreactor.” The construction and operation of an outdoor smog chamber in valencia for studying mechanisms of photochemical processes and their modeling in the polluted air of different European regions. Design and technical development of the European photoreactor and first experimental results. (European Community, Brussels, 1996).

Bergqvist, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, H. W.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carlier, P.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Chernin, S. M.

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chernin, E. G. Barskaya, “Optical multipass matrix systems,” Appl. Opt. 30, 51–57 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clerbaux, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demtroeder, W.

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

Doussin, J. F.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Durand-Jolibois, R.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Fayt, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Galle, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goutail, F.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, “Spectrometric methods for air pollution measurement,” in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. L. Metcalf, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, pp. 91–213.

Hausmann, M.

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haussmann, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, D. R.

Horn, D.

Hoshimo, M.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, G.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

MacManus, J. B.

Monod, A.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Nunes-Pinharanda, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, M.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pimentel, G. C.

Pitts, J. N.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. N. J.

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Plane, J. M. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J. P.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pundt, I.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, D.

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, T.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakamaki, F.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, H. J.

Schulz-DuBois, E. O.

Simon, P. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

Smith, N.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tuazon, E. C.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vitushkin, A. L.

Vitushkin, L. F.

Wallington, T. J.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Washida, N.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

White, J.

White, J. U.

Winer, A. M.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

Analysis

J. F. Doussin, D. Ritz, R. Durand-Jolibois, A. Monod, P. Carlier, “Design of an environmental chamber for the study of atmospheric chemistry: new developments in the analytical device,” Analysis 2, 236–242 (1997).

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Environ.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path length infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

H. Akimoto, M. Hoshimo, G. Inoue, F. Sakamaki, N. Washida, M. Okuda, “Design and characterization of the evacuable and bakable photochemical smog chamber,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 471–475 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Haussmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instrument for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S. M. Chernin, “Multipass system with large relative aperture,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 525–532 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Spectrochim. Acta A

S. M. Chernin, “New generation of multipass systems in high resolution spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 52, 1009–1022 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Ritz, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, “Improved open multireflection cell for the measurement of NO2 and NO3,” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE1715, 200–211 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, J. N. J. Pitts, Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1986).

K. H. Becker, “EUPHORE, The European Photoreactor.” The construction and operation of an outdoor smog chamber in valencia for studying mechanisms of photochemical processes and their modeling in the polluted air of different European regions. Design and technical development of the European photoreactor and first experimental results. (European Community, Brussels, 1996).

P. L. Hanst, “Spectrometric methods for air pollution measurement,” in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, J. N. Pitts, R. L. Metcalf, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Vol. 2, pp. 91–213.

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side view of the classical White cell set for 8 passes. Points Ca and Cc are the centers of curvature of the twin mirrors: The focal points on mirror B are numbered along the optical path (1, 2, 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Front view of the classical White cell set for 12 passes: A, when the entrance, the centers of curvature of the twin mirrors, and the exit are aligned; B, when they are unaligned.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between the classical White device (left) and the stabilized systems describe here (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spot diagram on the front mirror. Solid points are those formed before Reflector E (open points are those formed behind it). Square points are those formed before Reflector F (round points are those formed behind it).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of a slight misalignment of Ca on the position of the spots. The change for each spot is given by the two vectors attached.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spot diagram on the front mirror while the multiple-reflection cell is operated in a nonstabilized mode. The interception of the segments indicates the center of curvature of twin mirrors Ca and Cc.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the number of reflections at different mirror reflectivities.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Various Possible Path Lengthsa

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Table 2 Optical Specifications of the Cell Elements

Equations (8)

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Absorbance=A=lnI0II0-II with I0I,
S/N=AδA.
δAδI0I+I0×δII22 δII.
δA  2I.
A  n+1.
I  Rn.
S/N  12n+1Rn/2.
nopt=-2lnR-1.

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