Abstract

A molybdenum–silicon (Mo/Si) multilayer-mirror (MLM) polarimeter has been constructed and used to analyze the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission from excited HeI and HeII states following electron impact on He for wavelengths ranging from approximately 256 to 584 Å. A ratio of reflectivities for s- and p-polarized light, R s:R p ≈ 10, and a resolving power of λ/Δλ ≈ 6 at 304 Å were obtained. These characteristics and the use of a VYNS (a copolymer material composed of 90% vinyl chloride and 10% vinyl acetate) spectral filter were sufficient to allow a detailed polarization study of the first two members of the Lyman series of He+ at wavelengths of 304 Å (HeII 2p → 1s) and 256 Å (HeII 3p → 1s) for impact-electron energies ranging from threshold to 1500 eV. The MLM has also been used as a single flat-surface mirror polarimeter for the analysis of longer-wavelength radiation (517 to 584 Å) from the (1snp) 1 P o → (1s 2) 1 S series of neutral He with R s/R p ≈ 3. Although MLM polarimeters were previously used for EUV measurements with bright photon sources such as those provided by synchrotron facilities, the results presented clearly demonstrate the feasibility of such devices with lower-intensity electron and ion impact sources. The compact design of the apparatus makes it suitable as a portable measurement and calibration device.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (2)

M. Dogan, A. Crowe, K. Bartschat, P. J. Marchalant, “Simultaneous excitation–ionization of helium to the He+ (2p) state,” J. Phys. B 31, 1611–1624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruch, N. Afanasyeva, P. Kano, D. Schneider, “Surface spectroscopy of nano- and subnano structures,” Nanotechnology 9, 346–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

J. G. Tobin, K. W. Goodman, F. O. Schumann, R. F. Willis, J. B. Kortright, J. D. Denlinger, E. Rotenberg, A. Warwick, N. V. Smith, “Generalized description of magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in Fe 3p photoelectron emission,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1766–1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, A. Vasilyev, “Characteristics of a multilayer mirror polarimeter for measurements at extreme ultraviolet wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1051–1054 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, K. B. Fournier, M. J. May, V. Soukhanovskii, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, “How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1002–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kantsyrrev, R. Bruch, R. Phaneuf, N. G. Publicover, “New concepts for x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV optical instrumentation including applications in spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and biomedical microscopy: a status report,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 7, 139–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

C. Norén, W. L. Karras, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “Polarization studies of rare-gas resonance radiation: argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 510–521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Waddill, J. G. Tobin, X. Guo, S. Y. Tong, “Probing surface and thin film magnetic structure with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3152–3159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Götz, W. Mehlhorn, A. Raeker, K. Bartschat, “Ionization–excitation of He atoms by electron impact: alignment of He+ (2p2P),” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 4699–4708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hayes, J. F. Williams, “Simultaneous ionization and excitation to the He+ 2 2P state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3098–3101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Norén, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, K. Bartschat, “Near-threshold study of the polarization of He resonance radiation using an energy-selected electron beam,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1559–1566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, E. Rauscher, S. Bliman, “Cross sections for the ionization–excitation of helium by fast electrons and H+, H2+, H3+ ions: (np) 2Po levels, n = 2–5,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 2655–2670 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (6)

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2968 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fugutani, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical-polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gluskin, “A universal polarimeter for the soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1523–1524 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. McGuire, “Multiple-electron excitation, ionization, and transfer in high-velocity atomic and molecular collisions,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 217–315 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Hammond, W. Karras, A. G. McConkey, J. W. McConkey, “Polarization of rare-gas radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet region excited by electron impact: helium and neon,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1804–1810 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

1987 (3)

J. F. Meekins, R. G. Cruddace, H. Gursky, “Optimization of layered synthetic microstructures for broadband reflectivity at soft x-ray and EUV wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 26, 990–994 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the X-UV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Mason, W. R. Newell, “Total cross section for metastable excitation in the rare gases,” J. Phys. B 20, 1357–1377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. L. Forand, K. Becker, J. W. McConkey, “Absolute electron impact emission cross section of the He+ 2 2P → 1 2S line at 304 Å produced by simultaneous ionization–excitation,” J. Phys. B 18, 1409–1418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. H. Greene, A. R. P. Rau, “Effect of symmetry on two-electron escape at threshold,” J. Phys. B 16, 99–106 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

W. B. Westerveld, H. G. M. Heideman, J. van Eck, “Electron impact excitation of 1 1S → 2 1P and 1 1 S → 3 1 P of helium: excitation cross sections and polarization fractions obtained from XUV radiation,” J. Phys. B 12, 115–135 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, A. Parkin, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, IV. The n = 3 states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 352, 419–428 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Klar, W. Schlecht, “Threshold multiple ionization of atoms. Energy dependence for double and triple escape,” J. Phys. B 9, 1699–1711 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, R. D. Watkins, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, III. Polarization near threshold of light from the 4D states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 337, 443–450 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Eminyan, K. B. MacAdam, J. Slevin, H. Kleinpoppen, “Electron-photon angular correlations in electron–helium collisions: measurements of complex excitation amplitudes, atomic orientation and alignment,” J. Phys. B. At. Mol. Phys. 7, 1519–1530 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Hippler, K. H. Schartner, “Absolute cross sections for the excitation of n1Po-levels of helium by proton impact (150–100 keV),” J. Phys. B 7, 618–625 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. C. McFarlane, “A Bethe theory for the polarization of impact radiation,” J. Phys. B 7, 1756–1771 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

F. G. Donaldson, M. A. Hender, J. W. McConkey, “Vacuum ultraviolet measurements of the electron impact excitation of helium,” J. Phys. B 5, 1192–1210 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. Mehlhorn, “On the polarization of characteristic x radiation,” Phys. Lett. A 26, 166–168 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

I. C. Percival, M. J. Seaton, “The polarization of atomic line radiation excited by electron impact,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 113–130 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Afanasyeva, N.

R. Bruch, N. Afanasyeva, P. Kano, D. Schneider, “Surface spectroscopy of nano- and subnano structures,” Nanotechnology 9, 346–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Altick, P. L.

P. L. Altick, T. Rösel, “Model-independent parameters for triply differential electron impact ionization cross sections at low energies,” J. Phys. B 21, 2635–2644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arendt, P.

Bailey, M.

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, A. Vasilyev, “Characteristics of a multilayer mirror polarimeter for measurements at extreme ultraviolet wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1051–1054 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, E. Rauscher, S. Bliman, “Cross sections for the ionization–excitation of helium by fast electrons and H+, H2+, H3+ ions: (np) 2Po levels, n = 2–5,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 2655–2670 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, A. Shevelko, “Measurement of the degree of the polarization for the radiative decay of He+ (np) (n = 2 and 3) and He (1snp) 1Po states following electron impact on He: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

M. Bailey, H. Merabet, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, “A fully characterized multilayer mirror (MLM) polarimeter in the EUV range for accelerator based atomic and surface collision experiments: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, S. Showers, D. Schneider, “Development of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical devices for diagnostics and instrumentation for various surface applications,” Surface Interface Anal. (in press).

M. Bailey, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact utilyzing a multilayer mirror polarimeter,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Nevada, Reno, Nev., 1997).

Barbee, T. W.

Bartschat, K.

M. Dogan, A. Crowe, K. Bartschat, P. J. Marchalant, “Simultaneous excitation–ionization of helium to the He+ (2p) state,” J. Phys. B 31, 1611–1624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Norén, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, K. Bartschat, “Near-threshold study of the polarization of He resonance radiation using an energy-selected electron beam,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1559–1566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Götz, W. Mehlhorn, A. Raeker, K. Bartschat, “Ionization–excitation of He atoms by electron impact: alignment of He+ (2p2P),” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 4699–4708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. C.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

J. L. Forand, K. Becker, J. W. McConkey, “Absolute electron impact emission cross section of the He+ 2 2P → 1 2S line at 304 Å produced by simultaneous ionization–excitation,” J. Phys. B 18, 1409–1418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bliman, S.

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, E. Rauscher, S. Bliman, “Cross sections for the ionization–excitation of helium by fast electrons and H+, H2+, H3+ ions: (np) 2Po levels, n = 2–5,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 2655–2670 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bray, I.

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

Bruch, R.

R. Bruch, N. Afanasyeva, P. Kano, D. Schneider, “Surface spectroscopy of nano- and subnano structures,” Nanotechnology 9, 346–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, A. Vasilyev, “Characteristics of a multilayer mirror polarimeter for measurements at extreme ultraviolet wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1051–1054 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kantsyrrev, R. Bruch, R. Phaneuf, N. G. Publicover, “New concepts for x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV optical instrumentation including applications in spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and biomedical microscopy: a status report,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 7, 139–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, E. Rauscher, S. Bliman, “Cross sections for the ionization–excitation of helium by fast electrons and H+, H2+, H3+ ions: (np) 2Po levels, n = 2–5,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 2655–2670 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, H. Merabet, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, “A fully characterized multilayer mirror (MLM) polarimeter in the EUV range for accelerator based atomic and surface collision experiments: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, S. Showers, D. Schneider, “Development of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical devices for diagnostics and instrumentation for various surface applications,” Surface Interface Anal. (in press).

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, A. Shevelko, “Measurement of the degree of the polarization for the radiative decay of He+ (np) (n = 2 and 3) and He (1snp) 1Po states following electron impact on He: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

Crowe, A.

M. Dogan, A. Crowe, K. Bartschat, P. J. Marchalant, “Simultaneous excitation–ionization of helium to the He+ (2p) state,” J. Phys. B 31, 1611–1624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

J. C. Davis, A. L. Oren, J. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, E. M. Gullikson, B. L. Henke, Small Computer Programs for the MPD and EOM Characterization of Multilayers (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

Denlinger, J. D.

J. G. Tobin, K. W. Goodman, F. O. Schumann, R. F. Willis, J. B. Kortright, J. D. Denlinger, E. Rotenberg, A. Warwick, N. V. Smith, “Generalized description of magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in Fe 3p photoelectron emission,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1766–1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the X-UV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Khandar-Sahabad, P. Dhez, “Multilayer x-ray polarizers,” in Application of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE563, 158–163 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, M.

M. Dogan, A. Crowe, K. Bartschat, P. J. Marchalant, “Simultaneous excitation–ionization of helium to the He+ (2p) state,” J. Phys. B 31, 1611–1624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, F. G.

F. G. Donaldson, M. A. Hender, J. W. McConkey, “Vacuum ultraviolet measurements of the electron impact excitation of helium,” J. Phys. B 5, 1192–1210 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Eminyan, M.

M. Eminyan, K. B. MacAdam, J. Slevin, H. Kleinpoppen, “Electron-photon angular correlations in electron–helium collisions: measurements of complex excitation amplitudes, atomic orientation and alignment,” J. Phys. B. At. Mol. Phys. 7, 1519–1530 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Finkenthal, M.

S. P. Regan, K. B. Fournier, M. J. May, V. Soukhanovskii, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, “How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1002–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R. F.

Forand, J. L.

J. L. Forand, K. Becker, J. W. McConkey, “Absolute electron impact emission cross section of the He+ 2 2P → 1 2S line at 304 Å produced by simultaneous ionization–excitation,” J. Phys. B 18, 1409–1418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, K. B.

S. P. Regan, K. B. Fournier, M. J. May, V. Soukhanovskii, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, “How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1002–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fugutani, H.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fugutani, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical-polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fursa, D. V.

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

Gluskin, E. S.

E. S. Gluskin, “A universal polarimeter for the soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1523–1524 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, K. W.

J. G. Tobin, K. W. Goodman, F. O. Schumann, R. F. Willis, J. B. Kortright, J. D. Denlinger, E. Rotenberg, A. Warwick, N. V. Smith, “Generalized description of magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in Fe 3p photoelectron emission,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1766–1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Götz, A.

A. Götz, W. Mehlhorn, A. Raeker, K. Bartschat, “Ionization–excitation of He atoms by electron impact: alignment of He+ (2p2P),” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 4699–4708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Götz, “Alignment of He+ (2p2P3/2) electron impact ionization close to threshold,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Freiburg, Germany, 1995).

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C. H. Greene, A. R. P. Rau, “Effect of symmetry on two-electron escape at threshold,” J. Phys. B 16, 99–106 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, K. Nguyen, “Tarnishing of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6985–6990 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Davis, A. L. Oren, J. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, E. M. Gullikson, B. L. Henke, Small Computer Programs for the MPD and EOM Characterization of Multilayers (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

Guo, X.

G. D. Waddill, J. G. Tobin, X. Guo, S. Y. Tong, “Probing surface and thin film magnetic structure with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3152–3159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gursky, H.

Hammond, P.

C. Norén, W. L. Karras, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “Polarization studies of rare-gas resonance radiation: argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 510–521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Norén, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, K. Bartschat, “Near-threshold study of the polarization of He resonance radiation using an energy-selected electron beam,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1559–1566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hammond, W. Karras, A. G. McConkey, J. W. McConkey, “Polarization of rare-gas radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet region excited by electron impact: helium and neon,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1804–1810 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

Hayes, P. A.

P. A. Hayes, J. F. Williams, “Simultaneous ionization and excitation to the He+ 2 2P state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3098–3101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heddle, D. W. O.

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, A. Parkin, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, IV. The n = 3 states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 352, 419–428 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, R. D. Watkins, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, III. Polarization near threshold of light from the 4D states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 337, 443–450 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, H. G. M.

W. B. Westerveld, H. G. M. Heideman, J. van Eck, “Electron impact excitation of 1 1S → 2 1P and 1 1 S → 3 1 P of helium: excitation cross sections and polarization fractions obtained from XUV radiation,” J. Phys. B 12, 115–135 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hender, M. A.

F. G. Donaldson, M. A. Hender, J. W. McConkey, “Vacuum ultraviolet measurements of the electron impact excitation of helium,” J. Phys. B 5, 1192–1210 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

J. C. Davis, A. L. Oren, J. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, E. M. Gullikson, B. L. Henke, Small Computer Programs for the MPD and EOM Characterization of Multilayers (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

Hippler, R.

R. Hippler, K. H. Schartner, “Absolute cross sections for the excitation of n1Po-levels of helium by proton impact (150–100 keV),” J. Phys. B 7, 618–625 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

Kandaka, N.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fugutani, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical-polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kano, P.

R. Bruch, N. Afanasyeva, P. Kano, D. Schneider, “Surface spectroscopy of nano- and subnano structures,” Nanotechnology 9, 346–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kantsyrrev, V. L.

V. L. Kantsyrrev, R. Bruch, R. Phaneuf, N. G. Publicover, “New concepts for x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV optical instrumentation including applications in spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and biomedical microscopy: a status report,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 7, 139–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karras, W.

P. Hammond, W. Karras, A. G. McConkey, J. W. McConkey, “Polarization of rare-gas radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet region excited by electron impact: helium and neon,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1804–1810 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karras, W. L.

C. Norén, W. L. Karras, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “Polarization studies of rare-gas resonance radiation: argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 510–521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keesing, R. G. W.

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, A. Parkin, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, IV. The n = 3 states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 352, 419–428 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, R. D. Watkins, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, III. Polarization near threshold of light from the 4D states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 337, 443–450 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Khandar-Sahabad, A.

A. Khandar-Sahabad, P. Dhez, “Multilayer x-ray polarizers,” in Application of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. SPIE563, 158–163 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2968 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Klar, H.

H. Klar, W. Schlecht, “Threshold multiple ionization of atoms. Energy dependence for double and triple escape,” J. Phys. B 9, 1699–1711 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kleinpoppen, H.

M. Eminyan, K. B. MacAdam, J. Slevin, H. Kleinpoppen, “Electron-photon angular correlations in electron–helium collisions: measurements of complex excitation amplitudes, atomic orientation and alignment,” J. Phys. B. At. Mol. Phys. 7, 1519–1530 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Koide, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fugutani, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical-polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J. B.

J. G. Tobin, K. W. Goodman, F. O. Schumann, R. F. Willis, J. B. Kortright, J. D. Denlinger, E. Rotenberg, A. Warwick, N. V. Smith, “Generalized description of magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in Fe 3p photoelectron emission,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1766–1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2968 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

MacAdam, K. B.

M. Eminyan, K. B. MacAdam, J. Slevin, H. Kleinpoppen, “Electron-photon angular correlations in electron–helium collisions: measurements of complex excitation amplitudes, atomic orientation and alignment,” J. Phys. B. At. Mol. Phys. 7, 1519–1530 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Manson, J. E.

Marchalant, P. J.

M. Dogan, A. Crowe, K. Bartschat, P. J. Marchalant, “Simultaneous excitation–ionization of helium to the He+ (2p) state,” J. Phys. B 31, 1611–1624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mason, N. J.

N. J. Mason, W. R. Newell, “Total cross section for metastable excitation in the rare gases,” J. Phys. B 20, 1357–1377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

May, M. J.

S. P. Regan, K. B. Fournier, M. J. May, V. Soukhanovskii, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, “How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1002–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mayama, K.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2968 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McConkey, A. G.

P. Hammond, W. Karras, A. G. McConkey, J. W. McConkey, “Polarization of rare-gas radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet region excited by electron impact: helium and neon,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1804–1810 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConkey, J. W.

C. Norén, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, K. Bartschat, “Near-threshold study of the polarization of He resonance radiation using an energy-selected electron beam,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1559–1566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Norén, W. L. Karras, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “Polarization studies of rare-gas resonance radiation: argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 510–521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hammond, W. Karras, A. G. McConkey, J. W. McConkey, “Polarization of rare-gas radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet region excited by electron impact: helium and neon,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1804–1810 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Forand, K. Becker, J. W. McConkey, “Absolute electron impact emission cross section of the He+ 2 2P → 1 2S line at 304 Å produced by simultaneous ionization–excitation,” J. Phys. B 18, 1409–1418 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Donaldson, M. A. Hender, J. W. McConkey, “Vacuum ultraviolet measurements of the electron impact excitation of helium,” J. Phys. B 5, 1192–1210 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

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S. C. McFarlane, “A Bethe theory for the polarization of impact radiation,” J. Phys. B 7, 1756–1771 (1974).
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J. H. McGuire, “Multiple-electron excitation, ionization, and transfer in high-velocity atomic and molecular collisions,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 217–315 (1992).
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J. H. McGuire, Electron Correlation Dynamics In Atomic Collisions (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1997).
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Meekins, J. F.

Mehlhorn, W.

A. Götz, W. Mehlhorn, A. Raeker, K. Bartschat, “Ionization–excitation of He atoms by electron impact: alignment of He+ (2p2P),” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 4699–4708 (1996).
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W. Mehlhorn, “On the polarization of characteristic x radiation,” Phys. Lett. A 26, 166–168 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Merabet, H.

H. Merabet, R. Bruch, M. Bailey, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “A polarization study of the extreme ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact,” Phys. Rev. A (submitted for publication).

M. Bailey, H. Merabet, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, “A fully characterized multilayer mirror (MLM) polarimeter in the EUV range for accelerator based atomic and surface collision experiments: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, S. Showers, D. Schneider, “Development of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical devices for diagnostics and instrumentation for various surface applications,” Surface Interface Anal. (in press).

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, A. Shevelko, “Measurement of the degree of the polarization for the radiative decay of He+ (np) (n = 2 and 3) and He (1snp) 1Po states following electron impact on He: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

Moos, H. W.

S. P. Regan, K. B. Fournier, M. J. May, V. Soukhanovskii, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, “How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1002–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newell, W. R.

N. J. Mason, W. R. Newell, “Total cross section for metastable excitation in the rare gases,” J. Phys. B 20, 1357–1377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Newman, B.

Nguyen, K.

Nikitin, V.

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray/EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97-eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2968 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, P. C. Batson, V. Nikitin, “A soft x-ray EUV reflectometer based on a laser produced plasma source,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 3, 283–299 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norén, C.

C. Norén, W. L. Karras, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, “Polarization studies of rare-gas resonance radiation: argon, krypton, and xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 510–521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Norén, J. W. McConkey, P. Hammond, K. Bartschat, “Near-threshold study of the polarization of He resonance radiation using an energy-selected electron beam,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1559–1566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oren, A. L.

J. C. Davis, A. L. Oren, J. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, E. M. Gullikson, B. L. Henke, Small Computer Programs for the MPD and EOM Characterization of Multilayers (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

Parkin, A.

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, A. Parkin, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, IV. The n = 3 states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 352, 419–428 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Percival, I. C.

I. C. Percival, M. J. Seaton, “The polarization of atomic line radiation excited by electron impact,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 113–130 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phaneuf, R.

V. L. Kantsyrrev, R. Bruch, R. Phaneuf, N. G. Publicover, “New concepts for x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV optical instrumentation including applications in spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and biomedical microscopy: a status report,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 7, 139–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Y.

Y. Platonov, Osmic, Inc., 1788 Northwood Drive, Troy, Mich. 48084 (personal communication, 2February1998).

Publicover, N. G.

V. L. Kantsyrrev, R. Bruch, R. Phaneuf, N. G. Publicover, “New concepts for x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV optical instrumentation including applications in spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and biomedical microscopy: a status report,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 7, 139–158 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raeker, A.

A. Götz, W. Mehlhorn, A. Raeker, K. Bartschat, “Ionization–excitation of He atoms by electron impact: alignment of He+ (2p2P),” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29, 4699–4708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rau, A. R. P.

C. H. Greene, A. R. P. Rau, “Effect of symmetry on two-electron escape at threshold,” J. Phys. B 16, 99–106 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rauscher, E.

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, E. Rauscher, S. Bliman, “Cross sections for the ionization–excitation of helium by fast electrons and H+, H2+, H3+ ions: (np) 2Po levels, n = 2–5,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 2655–2670 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Regan, S. P.

S. P. Regan, K. B. Fournier, M. J. May, V. Soukhanovskii, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, “How to beat the low resolution of multilayer mirror spectra,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1002–1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

Rösel, T.

P. L. Altick, T. Rösel, “Model-independent parameters for triply differential electron impact ionization cross sections at low energies,” J. Phys. B 21, 2635–2644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rotenberg, E.

J. G. Tobin, K. W. Goodman, F. O. Schumann, R. F. Willis, J. B. Kortright, J. D. Denlinger, E. Rotenberg, A. Warwick, N. V. Smith, “Generalized description of magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in Fe 3p photoelectron emission,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1766–1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Schartner, K. H.

R. Hippler, K. H. Schartner, “Absolute cross sections for the excitation of n1Po-levels of helium by proton impact (150–100 keV),” J. Phys. B 7, 618–625 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schlecht, W.

H. Klar, W. Schlecht, “Threshold multiple ionization of atoms. Energy dependence for double and triple escape,” J. Phys. B 9, 1699–1711 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

R. Bruch, N. Afanasyeva, P. Kano, D. Schneider, “Surface spectroscopy of nano- and subnano structures,” Nanotechnology 9, 346–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, S. Showers, D. Schneider, “Development of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical devices for diagnostics and instrumentation for various surface applications,” Surface Interface Anal. (in press).

Schumann, F. O.

J. G. Tobin, K. W. Goodman, F. O. Schumann, R. F. Willis, J. B. Kortright, J. D. Denlinger, E. Rotenberg, A. Warwick, N. V. Smith, “Generalized description of magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in Fe 3p photoelectron emission,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1766–1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M.

Seaton, M. J.

I. C. Percival, M. J. Seaton, “The polarization of atomic line radiation excited by electron impact,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 113–130 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Shevelko, A.

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, A. Vasilyev, “Characteristics of a multilayer mirror polarimeter for measurements at extreme ultraviolet wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1051–1054 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, A. Shevelko, “Measurement of the degree of the polarization for the radiative decay of He+ (np) (n = 2 and 3) and He (1snp) 1Po states following electron impact on He: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

M. Bailey, H. Merabet, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, “A fully characterized multilayer mirror (MLM) polarimeter in the EUV range for accelerator based atomic and surface collision experiments: application of accelerators in research and industry,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1999).

Shidara, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fugutani, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical-polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Showers, S.

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G. D. Waddill, J. G. Tobin, X. Guo, S. Y. Tong, “Probing surface and thin film magnetic structure with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3152–3159 (1996).
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P. A. Hayes, J. F. Williams, “Simultaneous ionization and excitation to the He+ 2 2P state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3098–3101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London A (2)

D. W. O. Heddle, R. G. W. Keesing, R. D. Watkins, “High-resolution studies of electron excitation, III. Polarization near threshold of light from the 4D states of helium,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 337, 443–450 (1974).
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[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, R. Bruch, A. Shevelko, A. Vasilyev, “Characteristics of a multilayer mirror polarimeter for measurements at extreme ultraviolet wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1051–1054 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kandaka, H. Fugutani, K. Yamaguchi, “Elliptical-polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions with a reflection polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1458–1461 (1992).
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R. Bruch, H. Merabet, M. Bailey, S. Showers, D. Schneider, “Development of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical devices for diagnostics and instrumentation for various surface applications,” Surface Interface Anal. (in press).

J. C. Davis, A. L. Oren, J. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, E. M. Gullikson, B. L. Henke, Small Computer Programs for the MPD and EOM Characterization of Multilayers (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1993).

A. Götz, “Alignment of He+ (2p2P3/2) electron impact ionization close to threshold,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Freiburg, Germany, 1995).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of a distribution of electric dipoles for an ensemble of excited atoms or ions in the x, the y, and the z directions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the experimental apparatus used for polarization measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarizability of Mo, Au, and W for λ = 304-Å radiation as a function of the grazing-incidence angle calculated from the Fresnel equations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflectivity of the Mo/Si MLM polarimeter for 304-Å radiation as a function of the grazing-incidence angle. ch1, channel 1; ch2, channel 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured reflectivity of the Mo/Si MLM polarimeter as a function of wavelength for a grazing-incidence angle of 50°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the reflected intensities measured with the Mo/Si MLM polarimeter and a single-layer W mirror versus the electron-impact energy.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of the angular dependence of the photon intensity measured with the MLM polarimeter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polarization fractions for 304-Å radiation as a function of the electron-impact energy measured with a 10% and a 25% VYNS transmission filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic view of the crossed-polarimeter setup used to measure the intrinsic polarizability of the Mo/Si MLM.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Polarization fraction of HeI (1snp) 1 P o → (1s 2) 1 S radiation as a function of the electron-impact energy for energies ranging from 22 to 350 eV. Filled diamonds represent data from this study; open diamonds represent data from the study by Hammond et al.42; crosses represent the Born approximation. (b) Polarization fraction of HeI (1snp) 1 P o → (1s 2) 1 S radiation as a function of the electron-impact energy for energies ranging from 100 to 1500 eV. Filled diamonds represent data from this study; open diamonds represent data from the study by Hammond et al.42; the dashed curve represents the Born approximation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Polarization fraction of HeII (3p) 2 P o → (1s) 2 S radiation as a function of the electron-impact energy for energies ranging from 66 to 1500 eV. (b) Polarization fraction of HeII (2p) 2 P o → (1s) 2 S radiation as a function of the electron-impact energy for energies ranging from 66 to 1500 eV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Threshold-polarization measurements of Lyman-α for HeII (2p → 1s) obtained with 10% and 25% VYNS transmission filters. The HeI (1snp) 1 P o → (1s 2) 1 S polarization results are presented for comparison.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P=I-II+I,
2d sinθm=mλ,
λ/ΔλmN,
PM=Rs-RpRs+Rp,
R=2Rs1-P+Rp1+P,
PM=Rs-RpRs+Rp=R-1R+1.
I=RpI+RsI.
I=RP I+RSI=RP2I+RS2I.
I=RSI+RPI=RSRPI+RPRSI.
cpf=I-II+I=2RSRP-RS2-RP22RSRP+RS2+RP2=-RS-RP2RS+RP2=-PM2,
PM=|cpf|.
e-+He1s2 1 SoHe+2p 2 P o+e-+e-He+1s 2 So+hν, λ=304 Å.
e-+He1s2 1 S  He1snp 1 P o+e- He+1s2 2 S+hν.

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