Abstract

The design of a versatile high-precision eight-axis ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible polarimeter is presented. This multipurpose instrument can be used as a self-calibrating polarization detector for linearly and circularly polarized UV and soft-x-ray light. It can also be used for the characterization of reflection or transmission properties (reflectometer) or polarizing and phase-retarding properties (ellipsometer) of any optical element. The polarization properties of Mo/Si, Cr/C, Cr/Sc, and Ni/Ti multilayers used in this polarimeter as polarizers in transmission and as analyzers in reflection have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. In the soft-x-ray range, close to the 2p edges of Sc, Ti, and Cr, resonantly enhanced phase retardation of the transmission polarizers of as much as 18° has been measured. With these newly developed optical elements the complete polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation can be extended to the water-window range from 300 to 600 eV.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. P. Walker, B. Diviacco, “Studies of insertion devices for producing circularly polarized radiation with variable helicity in ELETTRA,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 332–335 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. M. F. de Groot, “X-ray absorption and dichroism of transition metals and their compounds,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 67, 529–622 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Heinzmann, N. A. Cherepkov, “Spin polarization in photoionization,” VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization Studies, U. Becker, D. A. Shirley, eds., (Plenum, New York, 1996), pp. 512–529.
  8. P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Petroff, “Neutron beams and synchrotron radiation sources,” presented at Mega Science, The OECD Forum, Organization for Economonic Cooperation and Development, Paris, 1994.
  10. G. Schönhense, “Circular dichroism and spin polarization in photoemission from adsorbates and nonmagnetic solids,” Phys. Scr. T31, 255–275 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).
  12. A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. B. Westerveld, K. Becker, P. W. Zetner, J. J. Corr, J. W. McConkey, “Production and measurement of circular polarization in the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2256–2262 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, C. M. Wang, “Rotating-polarizer polarimeter for accurate retardance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6466–6472 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High-precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Optics and Technology, E. E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. SPIE733, 272–273 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the x–uv range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. R. Hunter, “Polarizers for the extreme ultraviolet,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Suppl. 1, 520–526 (1965).
  20. E. Spiller, “Multilayer interference coatings for the vacuum ultraviolet,” in Space Optics, B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1974), pp. 581–597.
  21. K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, “A method for measuring polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1005–1010 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. B. Baranova, B. Y. Zeldovich, “Birefringence and gyrotropoy due to nearly Bragglike processes in the x-ray region,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 900–904 (1980).
  24. J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distributions of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 6178–6181 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. C. Lang, G. Strajer, “Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1540–1542 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. B. Kortright, B. Rice, R. Carr, “Soft x-ray Faraday rotation at Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10,240–10,243 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. B. Kortright, “Polarization properties of multilayers in the EUV and soft x-ray,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 160–167 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  37. F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).
  38. S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, B. T. Sullivan, M. Chaker, H. Pepin, C. M. Falco, “Survey of Ti-, B-, and Y-based soft x-ray–extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors for the 2- to 12-nm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5134–5147 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1873–1882 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  41. F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  42. F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, K. D. Franck, “Tunable multilayer EUV/soft x-ray polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1567–1569 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  44. R. L. Johnson, J. Barth, M. Cardona, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2209–2212 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  45. F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “REFLEC—a program to calculate soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” (Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Berlin, 1996).
  46. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
  47. J. B. Kortright, A. Fischer-Colbrie, “Standing wave enhanced scattering in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1130–1133 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  48. V. Sh. Machavariani, “Quarter wave plate in near edge soft x-ray region based on the total external reflection principle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1541–1543 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  49. H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  50. H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  51. For further information see http://www-cxro.lblgov/multilayer/survey.html .
  52. H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).
  53. M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, C. M. Wang, “Rotating-polarizer polarimeter for accurate retardance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6466–6472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, B. T. Sullivan, M. Chaker, H. Pepin, C. M. Falco, “Survey of Ti-, B-, and Y-based soft x-ray–extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors for the 2- to 12-nm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5134–5147 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, B. Rice, R. Carr, “Soft x-ray Faraday rotation at Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10,240–10,243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lang, G. Strajer, “Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1540–1542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, K. D. Franck, “Tunable multilayer EUV/soft x-ray polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1567–1569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Walker, B. Diviacco, “Studies of insertion devices for producing circularly polarized radiation with variable helicity in ELETTRA,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 332–335 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

G. Schönhense, “Circular dichroism and spin polarization in photoemission from adsorbates and nonmagnetic solids,” Phys. Scr. T31, 255–275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. L. Johnson, J. Barth, M. Cardona, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2209–2212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the x–uv range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distributions of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 6178–6181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, A. Fischer-Colbrie, “Standing wave enhanced scattering in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1130–1133 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1980

N. B. Baranova, B. Y. Zeldovich, “Birefringence and gyrotropoy due to nearly Bragglike processes in the x-ray region,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 900–904 (1980).

1975

1965

W. R. Hunter, “Polarizers for the extreme ultraviolet,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Suppl. 1, 520–526 (1965).

K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, “A method for measuring polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1005–1010 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abdali, S.

H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

Avaldi, L.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bahrdt, J.

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, N. B.

N. B. Baranova, B. Y. Zeldovich, “Birefringence and gyrotropoy due to nearly Bragglike processes in the x-ray region,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 900–904 (1980).

Barth, J.

R. L. Johnson, J. Barth, M. Cardona, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2209–2212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

Becker, U.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berakdar, J.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bijkerk, F.

H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Böeni, P.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Böni, P.

Bridou, F.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

Cardona, M.

R. L. Johnson, J. Barth, M. Cardona, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2209–2212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carr, R.

R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, B. Rice, R. Carr, “Soft x-ray Faraday rotation at Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10,240–10,243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

Cherepkov, N. A.

U. Heinzmann, N. A. Cherepkov, “Spin polarization in photoionization,” VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization Studies, U. Becker, D. A. Shirley, eds., (Plenum, New York, 1996), pp. 512–529.

Clemens, D.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corr, J. J.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).

de Groot, F. M. F.

F. M. F. de Groot, “X-ray absorption and dichroism of transition metals and their compounds,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 67, 529–622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the x–uv range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DiFonzo, S.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

Diviacco, B.

R. P. Walker, B. Diviacco, “Studies of insertion devices for producing circularly polarized radiation with variable helicity in ELETTRA,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 332–335 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Engelns, A.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Falco, C. M.

Farnoux, B.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fischer-Colbrie, A.

J. B. Kortright, A. Fischer-Colbrie, “Standing wave enhanced scattering in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1130–1133 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Foulet, G.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Franck, K. D.

J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, K. D. Franck, “Tunable multilayer EUV/soft x-ray polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1567–1569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fuggle, J. C.

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fukutani, H.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, K.-J.

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaponov, S. V.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gaupp, A.

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Optics and Technology, E. E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. SPIE733, 272–273 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

Gluskin, E. S.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Goedkoop, J. B.

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, J. A.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, Y.

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grimmer, H.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1873–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).

Groos, M.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).

Guttmann, P.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Heinzmann, N. A. Cherepkov, “Spin polarization in photoionization,” VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization Studies, U. Becker, D. A. Shirley, eds., (Plenum, New York, 1996), pp. 512–529.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).

Hentges, R.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holldack, K.

K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horisberger, M.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horrisberger, M.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1873–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, “Polarizers for the extreme ultraviolet,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Suppl. 1, 520–526 (1965).

Ilyinsky, P. P.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. L.

R. L. Johnson, J. Barth, M. Cardona, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2209–2212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kachel, T.

K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kadaka, N.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. R.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaprolat, A.

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, P. A.

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kincaid, B. M.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, H.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kliger, D. S.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Koide, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J. B.

R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, B. Rice, R. Carr, “Soft x-ray Faraday rotation at Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10,240–10,243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, K. D. Franck, “Tunable multilayer EUV/soft x-ray polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1567–1569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, A. Fischer-Colbrie, “Standing wave enhanced scattering in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1130–1133 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, “Polarization properties of multilayers in the EUV and soft x-ray,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 160–167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “REFLEC—a program to calculate soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” (Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Berlin, 1996).

Lang, J. C.

J. C. Lang, G. Strajer, “Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1540–1542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, R. A.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J. W.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Lidia, S.

R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E.

H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maaza, M.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Machavariani, V. Sh.

V. Sh. Machavariani, “Quarter wave plate in near edge soft x-ray region based on the total external reflection principle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1541–1543 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

Maehara, T.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mast, M.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mayama, K.

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McConkey, J. W.

Meixner, A. E.

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menke, D.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mertin, M.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mertins, H.-Ch.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1873–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).

Mills, D. M.

D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distributions of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 6178–6181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miyahara, T.

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molter, K.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

Müller, R.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, V.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Packe, I.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, B.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peatman, W.

A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Optics and Technology, E. E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. SPIE733, 272–273 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Peatman, W. B.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

Petersen, H.

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

Petroff, Y.

Y. Petroff, “Neutron beams and synchrotron radiation sources,” presented at Mega Science, The OECD Forum, Organization for Economonic Cooperation and Development, Paris, 1994.

Rabinovitch, K.

Randall, C. E.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Rasch, D.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rice, B.

J. B. Kortright, B. Rice, R. Carr, “Soft x-ray Faraday rotation at Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10,240–10,243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rice, M.

R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, K. D. Franck, “Tunable multilayer EUV/soft x-ray polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1567–1569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A. H.

Rüdel, A.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salashchenko, N. N.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, F.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sawatzky, G. A.

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1873–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “REFLEC—a program to calculate soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” (Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Berlin, 1996).

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

Scheer, M.

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmolla, F.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schönhense, G.

G. Schönhense, “Circular dichroism and spin polarization in photoemission from adsorbates and nonmagnetic solids,” Phys. Scr. T31, 255–275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schroeter, Th.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schülke, W.

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, G.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sella, C.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Senf, F.

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shamov, E. A.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shatunov, Y. M.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shidara, T.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, J. M.

Snell, G.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soullie, G.

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, “Multilayer interference coatings for the vacuum ultraviolet,” in Space Optics, B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1974), pp. 581–597.

Staub, U.

H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).

Strajer, G.

J. C. Lang, G. Strajer, “Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1540–1542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Studna, A. A.

Sullivan, B. T.

Thole, B. T.

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Trakhtenberg, E. M.

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

van der Laan, G.

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Viefhaus, J.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voorma, H.-J.

H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. P.

R. P. Walker, B. Diviacco, “Studies of insertion devices for producing circularly polarized radiation with variable helicity in ELETTRA,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 332–335 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

Wang, Ch.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wehling, F.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Westerveld, W. B.

Wiedenhöft, M.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P. A.

Willmann, M.

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, K.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, M.

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Y.

N. B. Baranova, B. Y. Zeldovich, “Birefringence and gyrotropoy due to nearly Bragglike processes in the x-ray region,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 900–904 (1980).

Zetner, P. W.

Appl. Opt.

W. B. Westerveld, K. Becker, P. W. Zetner, J. J. Corr, J. W. McConkey, “Production and measurement of circular polarization in the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2256–2262 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, C. M. Wang, “Rotating-polarizer polarimeter for accurate retardance measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6466–6472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High-precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, “A method for measuring polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1005–1010 (1965).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, J. H. Underwood, “Phase retardation and full polarization analysis of soft-x-ray synchrotron radiation close to the carbon K edge by use of a multilayer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2624–2632 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, B. T. Sullivan, M. Chaker, H. Pepin, C. M. Falco, “Survey of Ti-, B-, and Y-based soft x-ray–extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors for the 2- to 12-nm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5134–5147 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, P. Böni, M. Horrisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1873–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schmolla, I. Packe, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft-x-ray range,” Appl. Opt. 37, 719–728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. B. Kortright, H. Kimura, V. Nikitin, K. Mayama, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, “Soft x-ray (97 eV) phase retardation using transmission multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2963–2965 (1992).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E = 50–30000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).

J. Appl. Crystallogr.

M. Maaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H.-J. Voorma, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, S. Abdali, “Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1876–1881 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, A. Fischer-Colbrie, “Standing wave enhanced scattering in multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1130–1133 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Related Phenom.

F. M. F. de Groot, “X-ray absorption and dichroism of transition metals and their compounds,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 67, 529–622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

W. R. Hunter, “Polarizers for the extreme ultraviolet,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Suppl. 1, 520–526 (1965).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A

K. J. S. Sawhney, F. Senf, M. Scheer, F. Schäfers, J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, “A novel undulator-based PGM beamline for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at BESSY II,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 390, 395–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

T. Koide, T. Shidara, M. Yuri, N. Kadaka, K. Yamaguchi, H. Fukutani, “Elliptical-polarization analysis of synchrotron radiation in the 5–80 eV region with a reflection polarimeter,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 308, 635–644 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer optical elements for generation and analysis of circularly polarized x-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 291, 272–277 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gluskin, S. V. Gaponov, P. Dhez, P. P. Ilyinsky, N. N. Salashchenko, Y. M. Shatunov, E. M. Trakhtenberg, “A polarimeter for soft x-ray and VUV radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 394–396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the x–uv range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaprolat, K.-J. Gabriel, W. Schülke, P. Fischer, G. Schütz, “Si Bragg-case transmission phase plate used for the production of circular polarized synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 361, 358–363 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Petersen, M. Willmann, F. Schäfers, W. Gudat, “Circularly polarized soft x-rays in the photon energy range 30–2000 eV at the BESSY SX700/3,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 333, 594–598 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. M. Mills, “Spin-aligned momentum distributions of transition-metal ferromagnets studied with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 6178–6181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, B. Rice, R. Carr, “Soft x-ray Faraday rotation at Fe L2,3 edges,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10,240–10,243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Goedkoop, B. T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G. A. Sawatzky, F. M. F. de Groot, J. C. Fuggle, “Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare earth compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2086–2093 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Viefhaus, L. Avaldi, G. Snell, M. Wiedenhöft, R. Hentges, A. Rüdel, F. Schäfers, D. Menke, U. Heinzmann, A. Engelns, J. Berakdar, H. Klar, U. Becker, “Experimental evidence for circular dichroism in the double photoionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Golovchenko, B. M. Kincaid, R. A. Levesque, A. E. Meixner, D. R. Kaplan, “Polarization pendellösung and the generation of circularly polarized x-rays with a quarter wave plate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 202–205 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sh. Machavariani, “Quarter wave plate in near edge soft x-ray region based on the total external reflection principle,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1541–1543 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

G. Schönhense, “Circular dichroism and spin polarization in photoemission from adsorbates and nonmagnetic solids,” Phys. Scr. T31, 255–275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. Bahrdt, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, M. Mast, K. Molter, W. B. Peatman, M. Scheer, Th. Schroeter, Ch. Wang, “Circular polarized synchrotron radiation from the crossed undulator at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 339–342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Walker, B. Diviacco, “Studies of insertion devices for producing circularly polarized radiation with variable helicity in ELETTRA,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 332–335 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Carr, J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, S. Lidia, “Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1862–1864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaupp, M. Mast, “First experimental experience with a VUV polarimeter at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2213–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lang, G. Strajer, “Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1540–1542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Holldack, F. Schäfers, T. Kachel, I. Packe, “A detector for circular polarization of soft x-rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2485–2489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, T. Miyahara, Y. Goto, K. Mayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Polarisation measurement of SR from a helical undulator using a quarter-wave plate for a wavelength of 12.8 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1920–1922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kimura, M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Full polarization measurement of synchrotron radiation with use of soft x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1379–1382 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, M. Rice, K. D. Franck, “Tunable multilayer EUV/soft x-ray polarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1567–1569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Johnson, J. Barth, M. Cardona, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2209–2212 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. DiFonzo, R. Müller, W. Jark, A. Gaupp, F. Schäfers, J. H. Underwood, “Multilayer transmission phase shifters for the carbon K edge and the water window,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1513–1516 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

N. B. Baranova, B. Y. Zeldovich, “Birefringence and gyrotropoy due to nearly Bragglike processes in the x-ray region,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 900–904 (1980).

Z. Phys. B

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, D. Rasch, “Imaging of magnetic domains with the x-ray microscope at BESSY using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Z. Phys. B 101, 313–316 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Petroff, “Neutron beams and synchrotron radiation sources,” presented at Mega Science, The OECD Forum, Organization for Economonic Cooperation and Development, Paris, 1994.

D. S. Kliger, J. W. Lewis, C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

U. Heinzmann, N. A. Cherepkov, “Spin polarization in photoionization,” VUV and Soft X-Ray Photoionization Studies, U. Becker, D. A. Shirley, eds., (Plenum, New York, 1996), pp. 512–529.

E. Spiller, “Multilayer interference coatings for the vacuum ultraviolet,” in Space Optics, B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1974), pp. 581–597.

A. Gaupp, W. Peatman, “A polarimeter for soft x-rays,” in Soft X-Ray Optics and Technology, E. E. Koch, G. A. Schmahl, eds., Proc. SPIE733, 272–273 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, “Polarization properties of multilayers in the EUV and soft x-ray,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 160–167 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Schäfers, H. Petersen, A. Gaupp, S. DiFonzo, W. Jark, J. H. Underwood, “Measurement of circular polarization close to the carbon K-edge using a transmission multilayer,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2010, 57–59 (1993).

For further information see http://www-cxro.lblgov/multilayer/survey.html .

H. Grimmer, M. Horrisberger, U. Staub, H.-Ch. Mertins, F. Schäfers, “Multilayer optics for soft x-rays,” Bull. Czech Slov. Crystallogr. Assoc. (to be published).

F. Schäfers, M. Krumrey, “REFLEC—a program to calculate soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” (Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Berlin, 1996).

F. Schäfers, H.-Ch. Mertins, M. Mertin, I. Packe, F. Schmolla, S. Di Fonzo, G. Soullie, W. Jark, H. Grimmer, P. Böeni, D. Clemens, M. Horisberger, N. N. Salashchenko, E. A. Shamov, “Experimental multilayer survey in the VUV,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurement for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 222–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Methods for polarization analysis from the visible to the x-ray ranges. The working ranges, methods, optical elements, and the obtainable polarization data in terms of Stokes parameters are indicated (see text for references).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup for polarization measurement with optical standards: a transmission polarizer and a reflection analyzer. Both elements are rotated independently about the beam axis (α and β, respectively) while the transmitted intensity is measured with the detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, Calculated peak reflectance data (R s at 45°) for ideal multilayer structures without roughness [σ = 0 nm (symbols)] and for σ = 0.3 nm, (dotted curves). The period is matched to the photon wavelength according to d = λ/2 sin(45°) including refraction corrections. Best performance is obtained at and below the respective absorption edges. Bottom, corresponding theoretical linear polarizing power R s /R p at 45° of the same multilayer structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectances R s , R p and linear polarizing power R s /R p at 397 eV as functions of the incidence angle calculated for two Cr/Sc multilayers with slightly different periods d. Left, period matched to the Brewster’s angle, coincidence of Bragg reflection peak and maximum linear polarizing power. Right, mismatch of Bragg and Brewster’s angles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry of phase-retarding transmission multilayers: The electric-field components E s and E p are projected perpendicularly (E ps and E s ) and parallel (E pp) to the surface normal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission and phase retardation (Δ) for a Cr/Sc transmission multilayer in the vicinity of the Bragg angle calculated for 397 eV, close to the Sc 2p absorption edge.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase retardation and figure of merit (T 1/2 sin Δ) for Cr/Sc transmission multilayers of different period thicknesses in the vicinity of the Bragg angle calculated for 397 eV.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase-retarding transmission multilayers for the soft x-ray region. The maximum achieveable phase retardation Δ was calculated for ideal structures without roughness [(σ = 0 nm (symbols)] and for σ = 0.3 nm (dotted curves), at the angle of optimum figure of merit (θ ≈ 30°). The period thickness is matched to the photon wavelength according to d = λ/2 sin (30°), including reflection corrections.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic view of the soft-x-ray polarimeter, Multilayer, frame, magazine store, and frame holder are shown separately.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of the UHV-compatible optical bench of the polarimeter including collimator, polarizer, analyzer, and detector sections. The incident light comes from the left.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental survey of multilayer reflection analyzers for the soft-x-ray range. Top, peak reflectance R s . Each data point was extracted from an energy scan or a θ–2θ-scan, as shown in the inset. Bottom, linear polarizing power of the same multilayers. These data were obtained as fit results from polarization measurements like those shown in Fig. 13 below.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: Experimental peak reflectance data R s close to the Brewster’s angle. Open symbols, Ref. 51; filled symbols, this paper and Refs. 40-42 and 52.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Polarization measurement with Cr/Sc multilayers at 397 eV (polarimeter scan). Angular distribution of the transmitted intensity as a function of azimuthal polarizer angle α for eight settings of the analyzer azimuth β. Open and filled symbols, experimental data; solid curves, fit results according to Eq. (8), delivering the Stokes parameters of the incident light and the polarizing properties of the two optical elements (S 0 = 0.98, S 1 = 0.9, S 2 = 0.05, S 3 = 0.38, T p /T s = 1.2, Δ = -18°, R s /R p = 10).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Polarizing properties of a Cr/Sc transmission multilayer close to the Sc 2p edge. Top, phase retardation Δ as function of the incidence angle in the vicinity of the Bragg angle. Each data point was obtained from a polarimeter scan according to Fig. 13. Solid curves, calculation with the assumptions of roughness of σ = 0.6 nm and beam divergence of 6.2 mrad. Inset, normal-incidence transmission (θ = 90). Middle, corresponding transmission ratio T p /T s . Bottom, absolute transmission in s geometry.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Polarizing properties of Cr/Sc transmission multilayers close to the Cr 2p edge. Angular dependence of the phase retardation on different period thicknesses. Solid curves, calculations including roughness and a beam divergence of 6.2 mrad. The maximum phase retardation increases with decreasing angles of incidence.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Polarizing properties of a Mo/Si transmission multilayer close to the Si 2p edge. Top, phase retardation Δ as function of the incidence angle in the vicinity of the Bragg angle. Solid curves, calculation assuming a roughness of σ = 1.6 nm and a beam divergence of 6.2 mrad. Inset, normal-incidence transmission (θ = 90). Middle, corresponding transmission ratio T p /T s . Bottom, absolute transmission in s geometry.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Polarizers for the soft-x-ray range: survey of experimental phase retardation for a MgF2 λ/4 plate (8 eV), a triple-reflection polarizer (<100 eV) (Ref. 12), and four transmission multilayers (Figs. 14, 1516).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Linear and circular polarization (Stokes parameters S 1, S 2, and S 3) of the radiation from the BESSY PM 3 monochromator as function of the azimuthal angle ψ for photon energies of 395 and 573 eV measured with Cr/Sc polarimeter optics. Calculations for 395 eV (solid curves).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Applications and Technical Features of the Soft-X-Ray Polarimeter

Tables Icon

Table 2 Accuracy of Angular Alignment of Optical Axes with Respect To Parallelism (‖) and Perpendicularity (⊥) and of Lateral Alignment with Respect to Parallel Shift (‖) and Intersection (⊥)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Most-Relevant Parameters of Multilayers Investigated in This Paper

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Es,pz, t=Es,p0expiωt-kz+φs,p,
Rs,p=rs,prs,p*,  rs,p=|rs,p|expiδs,p,  Ts,p=ts,pts,p*,  ts,p=|ts,p|expiδs,p,  Δ=δs-δp.
S0=Ep02+Es02/2,  S1=Ep02-Es02/2,  S2=Ep0Es0cosφp-φs,  S3=-Ep0Es0sinφp-φs.
P=S12+S22+S32/S021/21.
M=1-cos2Ψ00-cos 2Ψ10000sin 2Ψ cosδp-δssin 2Ψ sinδp-δs00-sin 2Ψ sinδp-δssin 2Ψ cosδp-δs,
Rα, β=10000cos 2α, βsin 2α, β00-sin 2α, βcos 2α, β00001.
Sf=R-βM2RβR-αM1RαSi.
Sf0α, β=½Ts+Tp½Rs+Rp{S0+cos  2α-S1 cos 2ψ1+sin 2α-S2 cos 2ψ1+cos 2β-S1 cos 2ψ2½1+sin 2ψ1 cosΔ1+sin 2β-S2 cos 2ψ2½1+sin 2ψ1 cos Δ1+cos 2α cos 2β+S0 cos 2ψ1 cos 2ψ2+sin 2α cos 2β+S3 sin 2ψ1 cos 2ψ2 sin Δ1+cos 2α sin 2β-S3 sin 2ψ1 cos 2ψ2 sin Δ1
+sin 2α sin 2β+S0 cos 2ψ1 cos 2ψ2+cos 4α cos 2β-S1 cos 2ψ2½1-sin 2ψ1 cos Δ1+sin 4α cos 2β-S2 cos 2ψ2½1-sin 2ψ1 cos Δ1+cos 4α sin 2β+S2 cos 2ψ2½1-sin 2ψ1 cos Δ1+sin 4α sin 2β-S1 cos 2ψ2½1-sin2ψ1 cos Δ1}.
δs,p=tan-1ImEs,p/ReEs,p.

Metrics