Abstract

An improved system for the separate measurement of the refractive index and the geometrical thickness that constitutes a hybrid configuration of a confocal microscope and a wavelength-scanning heterodyne interferometer with a laser diode is presented. The optical path difference can be measured in less than 1 s, which is 10 times quicker than with the low-coherence interferometry previously used, and with a resolution of 10 µm with a fixed reference mirror. Separate measurement of the refractive index and the geometrical thickness of glass plates was demonstrated by use of the arrangement in place of the low-coherence interferometer used previously.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tsuruta, Y. Ichihara, “Accurate measurement of lens thickness by using white-light fringes,” in Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1974), pp. 369–372.
  2. B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2976–2979 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. J. Connolly, J. Lee, C. J. Cogswell, “Confocal imaging of a stratified medium,” Appl. Opt. 33, 631–640 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement of layer thickness by a laser confocal microscope,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Meeting on Lightwave Sensing Technology (Japanese Society of Lightwave Sensing Technology, Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 91–98.
  5. P. A. Flournoy, R. W. McClure, G. Wyntjes, “White-light interferometric thickness gauge,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1907–1915 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Sakai, S. Ohkubo, A. Takayanagi, N. Umeda, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index of crystalline quartz using low coherence interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Meeting of Japan Society for Laser Microscopy (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 59–65.
  9. S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measuring the thickness and refractive index of a thick transparent plate by an unexpanded laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 63–65 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Simultaneous measurement of thicknesses and refractive indices of multiple layers by a low-coherence confocal interference microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1942–1944 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kikuta, K. Iwata, R. Nagata, “Distance measurement by the wavelength shift of laser diode light,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2976–2980 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, U. Hofbauerr, H. Tiziani, “Absolute interferometric distance measurement using a FM-demodulation technique,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5589–5594 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Takeda, H. Yamamoto, “Fourier-transform speckle profilometry: three-dimensional shape measurements of diffuse objects with large height steps and/or spatially isolated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7829–7837 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Rough surface profile measurement using speckle optical frequency-domain reflectometry with an external cavity tunable diode laser,” Optik 103, 93–100 (1996).
  17. S. Kuwamura, I. Yamaguchi, “Wavelength scanning profilometry for real-time surface shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4473–4482 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. J. Tiziani, B. Franze, P. Haible, “Wavelength-shift speckle interferometry for absolute profilometry using a mode-hop free external cavity diode laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1485–1496 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Suematsu, M. Takeda, “Wavelength-shift interferometry for distance measurements using the Fourier transform technique for fringe analysis,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4046–4055 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Ballif, R. Gianotti, Ph. Chavanne, R. Wälti, R. P. Salathé, “Rapid and scalable scans at 21 m/s in optical low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22, 757–759 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballif, R. Gianotti, Ph. Chavanne, R. Wälti, R. P. Salathé, “Rapid and scalable scans at 21 m/s in optical low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22, 757–759 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measuring the thickness and refractive index of a thick transparent plate by an unexpanded laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 63–65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, B. Franze, P. Haible, “Wavelength-shift speckle interferometry for absolute profilometry using a mode-hop free external cavity diode laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1485–1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuwamura, I. Yamaguchi, “Wavelength scanning profilometry for real-time surface shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4473–4482 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Simultaneous measurement of thicknesses and refractive indices of multiple layers by a low-coherence confocal interference microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1942–1944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Rough surface profile measurement using speckle optical frequency-domain reflectometry with an external cavity tunable diode laser,” Optik 103, 93–100 (1996).

1995

1994

1992

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2976–2979 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suematsu, M. Takeda, “Wavelength-shift interferometry for distance measurements using the Fourier transform technique for fringe analysis,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4046–4055 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1972

Ballif, J.

Barnes, T. H.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Rough surface profile measurement using speckle optical frequency-domain reflectometry with an external cavity tunable diode laser,” Optik 103, 93–100 (1996).

Boisrobert, C. Y.

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2976–2979 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavanne, Ph.

Chinn, S. R.

Cogswell, C. J.

Connolly, T. J.

Dalhoff, E.

Danielson, B. L.

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2976–2979 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Rough surface profile measurement using speckle optical frequency-domain reflectometry with an external cavity tunable diode laser,” Optik 103, 93–100 (1996).

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measuring the thickness and refractive index of a thick transparent plate by an unexpanded laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 63–65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, E.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flournoy, P. A.

Franze, B.

H. J. Tiziani, B. Franze, P. Haible, “Wavelength-shift speckle interferometry for absolute profilometry using a mode-hop free external cavity diode laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1485–1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukano, T.

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Simultaneous measurement of thicknesses and refractive indices of multiple layers by a low-coherence confocal interference microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1942–1944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement of layer thickness by a laser confocal microscope,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Meeting on Lightwave Sensing Technology (Japanese Society of Lightwave Sensing Technology, Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 91–98.

Gianotti, R.

Gray, D. F.

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haible, P.

H. J. Tiziani, B. Franze, P. Haible, “Wavelength-shift speckle interferometry for absolute profilometry using a mode-hop free external cavity diode laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1485–1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

Hee, M. R.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofbauerr, U.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichihara, Y.

T. Tsuruta, Y. Ichihara, “Accurate measurement of lens thickness by using white-light fringes,” in Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1974), pp. 369–372.

Iwata, K.

Kikuta, H.

Kulhavy, M.

Kuwamura, S.

Lee, J.

Lexer, F.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, H.

Matsuda, K.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Rough surface profile measurement using speckle optical frequency-domain reflectometry with an external cavity tunable diode laser,” Optik 103, 93–100 (1996).

McClure, R. W.

Mitsuyama, T.

Nagata, R.

Ohkubo, S.

N. Sakai, S. Ohkubo, A. Takayanagi, N. Umeda, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index of crystalline quartz using low coherence interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Meeting of Japan Society for Laser Microscopy (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 59–65.

Ohmi, M.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, N.

N. Sakai, S. Ohkubo, A. Takayanagi, N. Umeda, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index of crystalline quartz using low coherence interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Meeting of Japan Society for Laser Microscopy (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 59–65.

Salathé, R. P.

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shiraishi, T.

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suematsu, M.

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22, 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takayanagi, A.

N. Sakai, S. Ohkubo, A. Takayanagi, N. Umeda, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index of crystalline quartz using low coherence interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Meeting of Japan Society for Laser Microscopy (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 59–65.

Takeda, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Tiziani, H.

Tiziani, H. J.

H. J. Tiziani, B. Franze, P. Haible, “Wavelength-shift speckle interferometry for absolute profilometry using a mode-hop free external cavity diode laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1485–1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruta, T.

T. Tsuruta, Y. Ichihara, “Accurate measurement of lens thickness by using white-light fringes,” in Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1974), pp. 369–372.

Umeda, N.

N. Sakai, S. Ohkubo, A. Takayanagi, N. Umeda, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index of crystalline quartz using low coherence interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Meeting of Japan Society for Laser Microscopy (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 59–65.

Wälti, R.

Wyntjes, G.

Yamaguchi, I.

S. Kuwamura, I. Yamaguchi, “Wavelength scanning profilometry for real-time surface shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4473–4482 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Simultaneous measurement of thicknesses and refractive indices of multiple layers by a low-coherence confocal interference microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1942–1944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement of layer thickness by a laser confocal microscope,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Meeting on Lightwave Sensing Technology (Japanese Society of Lightwave Sensing Technology, Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 91–98.

Yamamoto, H.

Appl. Opt.

B. L. Danielson, C. Y. Boisrobert, “Absolute optical ranging using low coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2976–2979 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Flournoy, R. W. McClure, G. Wyntjes, “White-light interferometric thickness gauge,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1907–1915 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuta, K. Iwata, R. Nagata, “Distance measurement by the wavelength shift of laser diode light,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2976–2980 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Suematsu, M. Takeda, “Wavelength-shift interferometry for distance measurements using the Fourier transform technique for fringe analysis,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4046–4055 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. J. Connolly, J. Lee, C. J. Cogswell, “Confocal imaging of a stratified medium,” Appl. Opt. 33, 631–640 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Takeda, H. Yamamoto, “Fourier-transform speckle profilometry: three-dimensional shape measurements of diffuse objects with large height steps and/or spatially isolated surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7829–7837 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuwamura, I. Yamaguchi, “Wavelength scanning profilometry for real-time surface shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4473–4482 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, M. Kulhavy, “Wavelength-tuning interferometry of intraocular distances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6548–6553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Fischer, E. Dalhoff, S. Heim, U. Hofbauerr, H. Tiziani, “Absolute interferometric distance measurement using a FM-demodulation technique,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5589–5594 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. V. Sorin, D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

H. J. Tiziani, B. Franze, P. Haible, “Wavelength-shift speckle interferometry for absolute profilometry using a mode-hop free external cavity diode laser,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1485–1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measuring the thickness and refractive index of a thick transparent plate by an unexpanded laser beam,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 63–65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

M. Ohmi, T. Shiraishi, H. Tajiri, M. Haruna, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness of transparent plates by low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Rev. 4, 507–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Optik

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, “Rough surface profile measurement using speckle optical frequency-domain reflectometry with an external cavity tunable diode laser,” Optik 103, 93–100 (1996).

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Sakai, S. Ohkubo, A. Takayanagi, N. Umeda, “Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index of crystalline quartz using low coherence interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth Meeting of Japan Society for Laser Microscopy (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 59–65.

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Measurement of layer thickness by a laser confocal microscope,” in Proceedings of the Fifteenth Meeting on Lightwave Sensing Technology (Japanese Society of Lightwave Sensing Technology, Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1995), pp. 91–98.

T. Tsuruta, Y. Ichihara, “Accurate measurement of lens thickness by using white-light fringes,” in Proceedings of the International Commission for Optics Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1974), pp. 369–372.

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