Abstract

Water at the ice point makes a good calibration source in the 4- to 13-µm spectral region because of its high emissivity, small skin depth, and the ease with which an ice-point bath may be prepared and used. In a simple ice bath the emissivity is slightly less than unity, and we have calculated corrections that allow one to predict the apparent radiation temperature of the equivalent blackbody. We propose an alternate configuration that uses an auxiliary mirror. This configuration should provide an emissivity extremely close to unity.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry, 3rd ed. (Dover, New York, 1958), pp. 174–178.
  2. P. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, 6th ed. (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1978), pp. 143–144.
  3. R. C. Weast, ed., “U.S. standard atmosphere, 1976,” in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 64th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), pp. F-155–F-156.
  4. W. L. Wolfe, “Optical properties of water,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, 1965), pp. 362–367. This review article contains references to earlier research on the optical properties of water and ice.
  5. A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 893–903 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. See, for example, R. W. Ditchburn, Light, (Dover, New York, 1991), p. 443.
  7. P. S. Ray, “Broadband complex refractive indices of ice and water,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1836–1844 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. E. Forsythe, ed., Measurement of Radiant Energy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1937), p. 23.
  9. N. V. Suryanarayana, Engineering Heat Transfer (West, Minneapolis, 1995), p. 572.
  10. R. C. Weast, ed., “Recommended consistent values of the fundamental physical constants,” in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 64th ed., (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), p. F-198.
  11. M. V. Klein, Optics, 1st ed. (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 121–125. See especially Klein’s Eq. 4.11 and the sentence following it.
  12. G. N. Plass, H. Yates, “Infrared transmission through the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 252–254.
  13. D. S. Erley, B. H. Blake, Infrared Spectra of Gases and Vapors, (Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1965), Vol. 2.
  14. See, for example, M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 623.

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 893–903 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, P.

P. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, 6th ed. (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1978), pp. 143–144.

Blake, B. H.

D. S. Erley, B. H. Blake, Infrared Spectra of Gases and Vapors, (Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1965), Vol. 2.

Born, M.

See, for example, M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 623.

Ditchburn, R. W.

See, for example, R. W. Ditchburn, Light, (Dover, New York, 1991), p. 443.

Erley, D. S.

D. S. Erley, B. H. Blake, Infrared Spectra of Gases and Vapors, (Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1965), Vol. 2.

Klein, M. V.

M. V. Klein, Optics, 1st ed. (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 121–125. See especially Klein’s Eq. 4.11 and the sentence following it.

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, H. Yates, “Infrared transmission through the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 252–254.

Querry, M. R.

A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 893–903 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ray, P. S.

Rusk, A. N.

A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 893–903 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Suryanarayana, N. V.

N. V. Suryanarayana, Engineering Heat Transfer (West, Minneapolis, 1995), p. 572.

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry, 3rd ed. (Dover, New York, 1958), pp. 174–178.

Williams, D.

A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 893–903 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

See, for example, M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 623.

Wolfe, W. L.

W. L. Wolfe, “Optical properties of water,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, 1965), pp. 362–367. This review article contains references to earlier research on the optical properties of water and ice.

Yates, H.

G. N. Plass, H. Yates, “Infrared transmission through the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 252–254.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

A. N. Rusk, D. Williams, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 893–903 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

See, for example, R. W. Ditchburn, Light, (Dover, New York, 1991), p. 443.

W. E. Forsythe, ed., Measurement of Radiant Energy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1937), p. 23.

N. V. Suryanarayana, Engineering Heat Transfer (West, Minneapolis, 1995), p. 572.

R. C. Weast, ed., “Recommended consistent values of the fundamental physical constants,” in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 64th ed., (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), p. F-198.

M. V. Klein, Optics, 1st ed. (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 121–125. See especially Klein’s Eq. 4.11 and the sentence following it.

G. N. Plass, H. Yates, “Infrared transmission through the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965), pp. 252–254.

D. S. Erley, B. H. Blake, Infrared Spectra of Gases and Vapors, (Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1965), Vol. 2.

See, for example, M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 623.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry, 3rd ed. (Dover, New York, 1958), pp. 174–178.

P. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, 6th ed. (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1978), pp. 143–144.

R. C. Weast, ed., “U.S. standard atmosphere, 1976,” in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 64th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), pp. F-155–F-156.

W. L. Wolfe, “Optical properties of water,” in Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, W. L. Wolfe, ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, 1965), pp. 362–367. This review article contains references to earlier research on the optical properties of water and ice.

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