Abstract

Recent progress in the design of aspheric wave-front recording systems has permitted the manufacture of holographic gratings with highly variable groove densities that are suitable for flat-field spectrographs. A holographic grating thus recorded was processed to produce a laminar profile by use of reactive-ion etching. Measurements are reported of the absolute diffraction efficiency of this grating and of a comparable mechanically ruled grating. It is found that the holographic grating is much more effective in suppressing the higher orders. The spectral resolution was determined by use of a carbon Kα x-ray generator and a spectrograph with an imaging detector. The spectral resolution of the holographic grating was approximately 3 times worse than that of the ruled grating.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. J. Fonck, A. T. Ramsey, V. Yelle, “Multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis: SPRED,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2115–2123 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Harada, T. Kita, “Mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave grating,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3987–3993 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, T. Kita, T. Harada, “Development of a flat-field grazing-incidence XUV spectrometer and its application in picosecond XUV spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2386–2392 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Gratings, Vol. 6 of Techniques of Physics Series (Academic, London, 1982), Chap. 8, pp. 263–287.
  6. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Koike, Y. Harada, H. Noda, “New blazed holographic grating fabricated by use of an aspherical recording with an ion-etching method,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moiré Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE815, 96–101 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Koike, T. Namioka, “Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6308–6318 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Namioka, M. Koike, “Analytical representation of spot diagrams and its application to the design of monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 219–227 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
    [Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

T. Namioka, M. Koike, “Analytical representation of spot diagrams and its application to the design of monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 219–227 (1992).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1975 (1)

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Akune, Y.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bennett, J. M.

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Booth, R.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fonck, R. J.

Frank, A.

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[Crossref]

Harada, T.

Harada, Y.

M. Koike, Y. Harada, H. Noda, “New blazed holographic grating fabricated by use of an aspherical recording with an ion-etching method,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moiré Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE815, 96–101 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hunt, D. J.

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Gratings, Vol. 6 of Techniques of Physics Series (Academic, London, 1982), Chap. 8, pp. 263–287.

Ishiguro, E.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kita, T.

Koeda, M.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Koike, M.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, “Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6308–6318 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Namioka, M. Koike, “Analytical representation of spot diagrams and its application to the design of monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 219–227 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Koike, Y. Harada, H. Noda, “New blazed holographic grating fabricated by use of an aspherical recording with an ion-etching method,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moiré Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE815, 96–101 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, H.

Lee, R.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lindsey, K.

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Maezawa, H.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

More, R.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mrowka, S.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nagano, T.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nakano, N.

Namioka, T.

M. Koike, T. Namioka, “Plane gratings for high-resolution grazing incidence monochromators: holographic grating versus mechanically ruled varied-line-spacing grating,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6308–6318 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Namioka, M. Koike, “Analytical representation of spot diagrams and its application to the design of monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 219–227 (1992).
[Crossref]

Noda, H.

M. Koike, Y. Harada, H. Noda, “New blazed holographic grating fabricated by use of an aspherical recording with an ion-etching method,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moiré Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE815, 96–101 (1987).
[Crossref]

Price, D.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, A. T.

Sakurai, M.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sano, K.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shephered, R.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Speer, R. J.

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Stewart, R.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tanino, K.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Turner, D.

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yanagihara, M.

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yelle, V.

Young, B.

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

T. Namioka, M. Koike, “Analytical representation of spot diagrams and its application to the design of monochromators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 319, 219–227 (1992).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

A. Frank, K. Lindsey, J. M. Bennett, R. J. Speer, D. Turner, D. J. Hunt, “The theory, manufacture, structure and performance of N.P.L. x-ray gratings,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 277, 503–543 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

R. Shephered, R. Booth, B. Young, D. Price, R. More, R. Lee, R. Stewart, “Sub-picosecond, time resolved x-ray measurements,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 2–9 (1997); H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, N. Uesugi, “Cluster effects in soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma on a metal-doped glass target,” in Applications of X Rays Generated from Lasers and Other Bright Sources, G. A. Kyrala, J. J. Gauthier, eds., Proc. SPIE3157, 22–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Gratings, Vol. 6 of Techniques of Physics Series (Academic, London, 1982), Chap. 8, pp. 263–287.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, S. Mrowka, “Experimental comparison of mechanically ruled and holographically recorded plane varied-line spacing gratings,” in Gratings and Grating Monochromators for Synchrotron Radiation, W. R. McKinney, C. A. Palmer, eds., Proc. SPIE3150, 40–46 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Ishiguro, H. Maezawa, M. Sakurai, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, K. Sano, Y. Akune, K. Tanino, “Test of holographic SiC gratings for high-power synchrotron radiation,” in High Heat Flux Engineering, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE1739, 592–603 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Koike, Y. Harada, H. Noda, “New blazed holographic grating fabricated by use of an aspherical recording with an ion-etching method,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moiré Phenomena III, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE815, 96–101 (1987).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the soft-x-ray flat-field spectrograph.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the recording system of the holographic grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absolute efficiency for a fixed incident angle of α = 87°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized spectrum of the 4.4-nm C-K band. The solid and the dotted curves show the intensity of the holographic grating and the ruled grating, respectively.

Metrics