Abstract

We describe a method for increasing target contrast within a turbid medium by means of the polarization state of the scattered light. The backscattered Mueller matrices for various concentrations of 0.1-µm spherical scatterers were measured with and without a painted metal target. Simple discrimination based on detecting cross-polarized intensities is shown to be more effective than the use of total intensity information. As a result, the choice of polarization state is dictated primarily by the requirement to maximize depolarization at the target. This in general means that circularly polarized light is the optimum choice.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Q. Duntley, “Light in the sea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214–233 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Gilbert, J. C. Pernicka, “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique,” Appl. Opt. 6, 741–746 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Tyo, “A comparison of the point spread functions for polarization-difference and intensity-only imaging in scattering media,” in IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2304–2307.
  5. J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).
  7. D. L. Jordan, G. D. Lewis, “Infrared polarization signatures,” in Atmospheric Propagation Effects through Natural and Man-Made Obscurants for Visible to MM-Wave Radiation, Vol. 542 of AGARD Conference Proceedings (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Paris, 1993), pp. 30-1–30-5.
  8. S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Emerging optical biomedical techniques,” Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16–22 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Pitter, E. Jakeman, M. Harris, “Heterodyne detection of enhanced backscatter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 393–395 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  12. J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Dogariu, M. Dogariu, K. Richardson, S. D. Jacobs, G. D. Boreman, “Polarization asymmetry in waves backscattering from highly absorbent random media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8159–8164 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatterer concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. P. Nefedov, O. F. Petrov, O. S. Vaulina, “Analysis of particle sizes, concentration, refractive index in measurement of light transmittance in the forward-scattering-angle range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1357–1366 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Foch, “Rotating polarization imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1706–1708 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. D. Moley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1985).
  22. M. P. Silverman, W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase-modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  24. E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 169.
  25. F. C. MacKinosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  27. W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, I. J. Bigio, “Biomedical diagnostic with diffusely backscattered linearly and circularly polarized light,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technologies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds., Proc. SPIE2976, 298–305 (1997).
  29. J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix scatter polarimetry of a diamond-turned mirror,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1593–1598 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. R. Pal, J. S. Ryan, A. I. Carswell, “Cloud reflectance with laser beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2257–2258 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. L. Jordan, “Experimental measurements of optical backscattering from surfaces of roughness comparable to the wavelength and their application to radar sea scattering,” Waves Random Media 5, 41–54 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Polarization anisotropy in lidar multiple scattering from atmospheric clouds,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3464–3471 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminium,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (7)

1996 (3)

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Emerging optical biomedical techniques,” Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Foch, “Rotating polarization imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1706–1708 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix scatter polarimetry of a diamond-turned mirror,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1593–1598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Jordan, “Experimental measurements of optical backscattering from surfaces of roughness comparable to the wavelength and their application to radar sea scattering,” Waves Random Media 5, 41–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1989 (2)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. C. MacKinosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Polarization anisotropy in lidar multiple scattering from atmospheric clouds,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3464–3471 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1967 (1)

1963 (1)

Ablitt, B.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Emerging optical biomedical techniques,” Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, W. M.

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I. J.

Boerner, W. M.

Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bonner, R. F.

Boreman, G. D.

Bretenaker, F.

Cariou, K.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

Chance, B.

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. C. Y.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix scatter polarimetry of a diamond-turned mirror,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1593–1598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Collett, E.

E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

Dogariu, A.

Dogariu, M.

Duntley, S. Q.

Eick, A. A.

A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, I. J. Bigio, “Biomedical diagnostic with diffusely backscattered linearly and circularly polarized light,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technologies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds., Proc. SPIE2976, 298–305 (1997).

Emile, O.

Engheta, N.

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, I. J. Bigio, “Biomedical diagnostic with diffusely backscattered linearly and circularly polarized light,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technologies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds., Proc. SPIE2976, 298–305 (1997).

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

Gayen, S. K.

S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Emerging optical biomedical techniques,” Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, G. D.

Harris, M.

Hielscher, A. H.

Hopcraft, K. I.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Ivanov, A. P.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 169.

Jacobs, S. D.

Jakeman, E.

John, S.

F. C. MacKinosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, D. L.

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminium,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Jordan, “Experimental measurements of optical backscattering from surfaces of roughness comparable to the wavelength and their application to radar sea scattering,” Waves Random Media 5, 41–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Jordan, G. D. Lewis, “Infrared polarization signatures,” in Atmospheric Propagation Effects through Natural and Man-Made Obscurants for Visible to MM-Wave Radiation, Vol. 542 of AGARD Conference Proceedings (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Paris, 1993), pp. 30-1–30-5.

Katsev, I. L.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 169.

Khong, M. P.

Le Brun, G.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Foch, A.

Le Jeune, B.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G. D.

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminium,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Jordan, G. D. Lewis, “Infrared polarization signatures,” in Atmospheric Propagation Effects through Natural and Man-Made Obscurants for Visible to MM-Wave Radiation, Vol. 542 of AGARD Conference Proceedings (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Paris, 1993), pp. 30-1–30-5.

Lotrain, J.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacKinosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKinosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

MacKintosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moley, C. D.

C. D. Moley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1985).

Morgan, S. P.

Mourant, J. R.

Nefedov, A. P.

Pal, S. R.

Pernicka, J. C.

Petrov, O. F.

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix scatter polarimetry of a diamond-turned mirror,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1593–1598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pitter, M.

Pugh, E. N.

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Rowe, M. P.

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. S.

Schmitt, J. M.

Sengoku, M.

Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).

Silverman, M. P.

M. P. Silverman, W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase-modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

Strange, W.

M. P. Silverman, W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase-modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takayanagi, Y.

Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).

Tyo, J. S.

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo, “A comparison of the point spread functions for polarization-difference and intensity-only imaging in scattering media,” in IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2304–2307.

van de Hulst, H.

H. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Vaulina, O. S.

Walker, J. G.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 169.

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, N. Engheta, “Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1855–1870 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Nefedov, O. F. Petrov, O. S. Vaulina, “Analysis of particle sizes, concentration, refractive index in measurement of light transmittance in the forward-scattering-angle range,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1357–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Morgan, M. P. Khong, M. G. Somekh, “Effects of polarization state and scatterer concentration on optical imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1560–1565 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminium,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Gilbert, J. C. Pernicka, “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique,” Appl. Opt. 6, 741–746 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Pal, J. S. Ryan, A. I. Carswell, “Cloud reflectance with laser beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2257–2258 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Polarization anisotropy in lidar multiple scattering from atmospheric clouds,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3464–3471 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, M. Dogariu, K. Richardson, S. D. Jacobs, G. D. Boreman, “Polarization asymmetry in waves backscattering from highly absorbent random media,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8159–8164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takayanagi, W. M. Boerner, M. Sengoku, “Polarimetric enhancement in radar channel imagery,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 12, 1571–1579 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 159, 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Silverman, W. Strange, “Object delineation within turbid media by backscattering of phase-modulated light,” Opt. Commun. 144, 7–11 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix scatter polarimetry of a diamond-turned mirror,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1593–1598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Emerging optical biomedical techniques,” Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. C. MacKinosh, S. John, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 2383–2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B. 40, 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh, B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48, 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, K. Cariou, J. Lotrain, “Laser imaging procedure for evaluating the polarization signature of immersed targets,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

D. L. Jordan, “Experimental measurements of optical backscattering from surfaces of roughness comparable to the wavelength and their application to radar sea scattering,” Waves Random Media 5, 41–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, I. J. Bigio, “Biomedical diagnostic with diffusely backscattered linearly and circularly polarized light,” in Biomedical Sensing, Imaging, and Tracking Technologies II, T. Vo-Dinh, R. A. Lieberman, G. G. Vurek, eds., Proc. SPIE2976, 298–305 (1997).

H. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 169.

C. D. Moley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1985).

E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

J. S. Tyo, “A comparison of the point spread functions for polarization-difference and intensity-only imaging in scattering media,” in IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society International Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 2304–2307.

D. L. Jordan, G. D. Lewis, “Infrared polarization signatures,” in Atmospheric Propagation Effects through Natural and Man-Made Obscurants for Visible to MM-Wave Radiation, Vol. 542 of AGARD Conference Proceedings (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Paris, 1993), pp. 30-1–30-5.

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