Abstract

We present a methodology for determining the bleaching characteristics of dye-doped polymers. Our general phenomenological model predicts the absorption spectrum as well as the change in index of refraction as a function of wavelength for a bleached film. Determination of the parameters of the model requires only measurements of physical film characteristics (e.g., thickness, dye concentration), absorption features, and one index of refraction point. Our technique requires no detailed knowledge of the chemistry or physics of the polymer dye system. We have demonstrated the efficacy of our methodology by characterizing a guest–host system of 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4-H-pyran in Amoco 4212 polyimide. Based on our results, we speculate that it should be straightforward to generate model parameter values to characterize the bleaching of other dye-doped polymer systems.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).
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  20. T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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  27. Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  34. F. Inazaki, M. Tasumi, T. Miyazawa, “Excitation profile of the resonance Raman effect in β-carotin,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 286–303 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Terminology is attributable to D. DeKee, K. F. Wissbrun, “Polymer rheology,” Phys. Today 51, 24–29 (1998) and the references therein.
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1998 (2)

1996 (2)

K. Simmons-Potter, J. H. Simmons, “Modeling of absorption data complicated by Fabry–Perot interference in germanosilicate thin-film waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 268–272 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (2)

T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Zyung, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Accelerated photobleaching of nonlinear optical polymer for the formation of optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3527–3529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chakravorty, “Photogeneration of refractive-index patterns in doped polyimide films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2331–2338 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, “Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electrooptic polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588–1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. B. Rochfort, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Schu, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. Kanetake, Y. Tokura, T. Koda, “Photo- and thermo-chromism in vacuum-deposited polydiacetylene films,” Solid State Commun. 56, 803–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

F. Higuchi, J. Muto, “On the photobleaching quantum yields of heat-treated rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) molecules in the copolymer of methylmethacrylate (MMA) with methacrylic acid (MA),” Phys. Lett. 99A, 121–124 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Optical and nonlinear optical characterization of molecularly doped therotropic liquid crystalline polymers,” Macromolecules 15, 1385–1389 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

G. N. Patel, T. O. Witt, Y. P. Khanna, “Thermochromism in polydiacetylene solutions,” J. Polym. Sci. 18, 1383–1391 (1980).

1979 (1)

R. R. Chance, G. N. Patel, J. D. Witt, “Thermal effects on the optical properties of single crystals and solution-cast films of urethane-substituted polydiacetylenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 206–211 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. Inazaki, M. Tasumi, T. Miyazawa, “Excitation profile of the resonance Raman effect in β-carotin,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 286–303 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

Anderson, W. W.

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

Bjorklund, G. C.

J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chakravorty, K. K.

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, G. N. Patel, J. D. Witt, “Thermal effects on the optical properties of single crystals and solution-cast films of urethane-substituted polydiacetylenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 206–211 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chandross, E. A.

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, E. A. Chandross, C. A. Pryde, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes in solid matrices,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1563–1567 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J. C.

J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, J. M.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Degai, K. N.

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

DeKee, D.

Terminology is attributable to D. DeKee, K. F. Wissbrun, “Polymer rheology,” Phys. Today 51, 24–29 (1998) and the references therein.

Diemeer, M. B. J.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dirk, C. W.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

Ermer, S.

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

Feng, W.

Feuerstein, R. J.

Francis, C. V.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 1–26.
[CrossRef]

Girton, D. G.

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

Gong, Q.

K. B. Rochfort, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harwit, A.

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

Hayes, K.

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

Higuchi, F.

F. Higuchi, J. Muto, “On the photobleaching quantum yields of heat-treated rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) molecules in the copolymer of methylmethacrylate (MMA) with methacrylic acid (MA),” Phys. Lett. 99A, 121–124 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

Hooker, R. B.

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.-Y.

T. Zyung, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Accelerated photobleaching of nonlinear optical polymer for the formation of optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3527–3529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inazaki, F.

F. Inazaki, M. Tasumi, T. Miyazawa, “Excitation profile of the resonance Raman effect in β-carotin,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 286–303 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jenneskens, V. W.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-D.

T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kalamegham, P.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

Kaminow, I. P.

Kanetake, T.

T. Kanetake, Y. Tokura, T. Koda, “Photo- and thermo-chromism in vacuum-deposited polydiacetylene films,” Solid State Commun. 56, 803–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, Y. P.

G. N. Patel, T. O. Witt, Y. P. Khanna, “Thermochromism in polydiacetylene solutions,” J. Polym. Sci. 18, 1383–1391 (1980).

Kim, J.-J.

T. Zyung, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Accelerated photobleaching of nonlinear optical polymer for the formation of optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3527–3529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koda, T.

T. Kanetake, Y. Tokura, T. Koda, “Photo- and thermo-chromism in vacuum-deposited polydiacetylene films,” Solid State Commun. 56, 803–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. D.

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Schu, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

Lee, V. Y.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leung, D. S.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

Lin, S.

Lipscomb, G. F.

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, “Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electrooptic polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588–1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

Lovejoy, S. M.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

Lu, L.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R.

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R. S.

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, “Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electrooptic polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588–1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Marley, J. A.

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

McDonagh, A.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G. R.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Optical and nonlinear optical characterization of molecularly doped therotropic liquid crystalline polymers,” Macromolecules 15, 1385–1389 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Characterization of liquid crystalline polymers for electro-optic applications,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 109–133.
[CrossRef]

Mickelson, A. R.

Miller, R. D.

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Misemer, D. K.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, T.

F. Inazaki, M. Tasumi, T. Miyazawa, “Excitation profile of the resonance Raman effect in β-carotin,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 286–303 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mohaputra, S. K.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moshrefzadeh, R. S.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moylan, C. R.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

Muto, J.

F. Higuchi, J. Muto, “On the photobleaching quantum yields of heat-treated rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) molecules in the copolymer of methylmethacrylate (MMA) with methacrylic acid (MA),” Phys. Lett. 99A, 121–124 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, M.

Okada, A.

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

Patel, G. N.

G. N. Patel, T. O. Witt, Y. P. Khanna, “Thermochromism in polydiacetylene solutions,” J. Polym. Sci. 18, 1383–1391 (1980).

R. R. Chance, G. N. Patel, J. D. Witt, “Thermal effects on the optical properties of single crystals and solution-cast films of urethane-substituted polydiacetylenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 206–211 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, C. A.

Radcliffe, M. D.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rau, H.

H. Rau, “Photoisomerization of azobenzenes,” in Photochemistry and Photophysics, F. J. Rabeck, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), Chap. 4.

Rochfort, K. B.

K. B. Rochfort, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schu, J. E.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Simmons, J. H.

Simmons-Potter, K.

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, M. D. Kuzyk, J. E. Schu, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic processes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968–976 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Schu, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 1–26.
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. A.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stahelin, M.

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

K. B. Rochfort, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steir, W. H.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

Sugihara, O.

Suyten, F. M. M.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tasumi, M.

F. Inazaki, M. Tasumi, T. Miyazawa, “Excitation profile of the resonance Raman effect in β-carotin,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 286–303 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 1–26.
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A. J.

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, “Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electrooptic polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588–1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

T. Kanetake, Y. Tokura, T. Koda, “Photo- and thermo-chromism in vacuum-deposited polydiacetylene films,” Solid State Commun. 56, 803–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, “Phase holograms in photochromic materials,” Appl. Opt. 11, 823–831 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Trammel, E. S.

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tweig, R. J.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Valley, J. F.

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Dusen, J. G.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Optical and nonlinear optical characterization of molecularly doped therotropic liquid crystalline polymers,” Macromolecules 15, 1385–1389 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Characterization of liquid crystalline polymers for electro-optic applications,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 109–133.
[CrossRef]

Van Eck, T. E.

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, “Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electrooptic polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588–1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

Volksen, W.

J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. W.

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Optical and nonlinear optical characterization of molecularly doped therotropic liquid crystalline polymers,” Macromolecules 15, 1385–1389 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Characterization of liquid crystalline polymers for electro-optic applications,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 109–133.
[CrossRef]

Wissbrun, K. F.

Terminology is attributable to D. DeKee, K. F. Wissbrun, “Polymer rheology,” Phys. Today 51, 24–29 (1998) and the references therein.

Witt, J. D.

R. R. Chance, G. N. Patel, J. D. Witt, “Thermal effects on the optical properties of single crystals and solution-cast films of urethane-substituted polydiacetylenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 206–211 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Witt, T. O.

G. N. Patel, T. O. Witt, Y. P. Khanna, “Thermochromism in polydiacetylene solutions,” J. Polym. Sci. 18, 1383–1391 (1980).

Zanoni, R.

K. B. Rochfort, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

Zyung, T.

T. Zyung, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Accelerated photobleaching of nonlinear optical polymer for the formation of optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3527–3529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

T. Zyung, W.-Y. Hwang, J.-J. Kim, “Accelerated photobleaching of nonlinear optical polymer for the formation of optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3527–3529 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Van Eck, A. J. Ticknor, R. S. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, “Complementary optical tap fabricated in an electrooptic polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1588–1590 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steir, L. Lu, M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Large, stable photo-induced refractive index change in a nonlinear optical polyester polymer with disperse red side groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1131–1133 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Ermer, J. F. Valley, R. Lytel, G. F. Lipscomb, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, “DCM polyimide system for triple-stack poled polymer electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2272–2274 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thackara, J. C. Chon, G. C. Bjorklund, W. Volksen, D. M. Burland, “Polymeric electrooptic Mach-Zehnder switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3874–3876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Rochfort, R. Zanoni, Q. Gong, G. I. Stegeman, “Fabrication of integrated optical structures in polydiacetylene films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1161–1163 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Weber, R. Ulrich, E. A. Chandross, W. J. Tomlinson, “Light-guiding structures of photoresist films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 143–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Schu, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, S. K. Mohaputra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. B. J. Diemeer, F. M. M. Suyten, E. S. Trammel, A. McDonagh, J. M. Copeland, V. W. Jenneskens, W. H. G. Horsthuis, “Photo-induced channel waveguide formation in nonlinear optical polymers,” Electron. Lett. 26, 379–380 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Stahelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471–8479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, G. N. Patel, J. D. Witt, “Thermal effects on the optical properties of single crystals and solution-cast films of urethane-substituted polydiacetylenes,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 206–211 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane-urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

F. Inazaki, M. Tasumi, T. Miyazawa, “Excitation profile of the resonance Raman effect in β-carotin,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 286–303 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, K. Hayes, G. F. Lipscomb, S. J. Lalama, K. N. Degai, “First single-crystal polymers exhibiting phase-matched second harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1399–1400 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Polym. Sci. (1)

G. N. Patel, T. O. Witt, Y. P. Khanna, “Thermochromism in polydiacetylene solutions,” J. Polym. Sci. 18, 1383–1391 (1980).

Macromolecules (2)

C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, B. A. Smith, R. J. Tweig, W. Volksen, “Orientational relaxation in electric field-poled guest-host and side-chain polymers below Tg,” Macromolecules 26, 3720–3722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Optical and nonlinear optical characterization of molecularly doped therotropic liquid crystalline polymers,” Macromolecules 15, 1385–1389 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, S.-D. Jung, “Effects of photobleaching wavelength on the resulting refractive index profiles in nonlinear optical polymeric thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 247, 49–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Higuchi, J. Muto, “On the photobleaching quantum yields of heat-treated rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) molecules in the copolymer of methylmethacrylate (MMA) with methacrylic acid (MA),” Phys. Lett. 99A, 121–124 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

Terminology is attributable to D. DeKee, K. F. Wissbrun, “Polymer rheology,” Phys. Today 51, 24–29 (1998) and the references therein.

Solid State Commun. (1)

T. Kanetake, Y. Tokura, T. Koda, “Photo- and thermo-chromism in vacuum-deposited polydiacetylene films,” Solid State Commun. 56, 803–807 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Ermer, W. W. Anderson, T. E. Van Eck, D. G. Girton, J. A. Marley, A. Harwit, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, “Progress toward practical polymer electro-optic devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 285.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, D. J. Williams, “Characterization of liquid crystalline polymers for electro-optic applications,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 109–133.
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. D. Singer, C. C. Teng, “Molecular optics: nonlinear optical properties of organic and polymeric crystals,” ACS Symposium Series 233 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983), 1–26.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

H. Rau, “Photoisomerization of azobenzenes,” in Photochemistry and Photophysics, F. J. Rabeck, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), Chap. 4.

S. M. Lovejoy, S. Ermer, D. S. Leung, C. W. Dirk, P. Kalamegham, L. Zhang, C. R. Moylan, “Design and synthesis of soluble thermally stable nonlinear optical chromophores based on the dicyanomethylenepyran moiety,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonics Applications, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 259.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depictions of (a) the polyimide backbone of Amoco 4212 and (b) the DCM dye used in this research.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption measurements for pure 4212 and 4212 and 9% DCM with a film thickness of 4.0 µm. Optical density is defined as -log10(P t /P ref), where P t is the power transmitted by the sample and P ref is that transmitted by a clear quartz substrate in the reference arm. The optical density scale is correct for the pure 4212, but the 9% curve was scaled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption of 4212 and 8.38% DCM bleached for various times without absorption because of the backbone. Thickness of the film is 3.14 µm. Note that there is no isobestic point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption as a function of bleaching time for a 3.37% concentration of dye in a 4-µm film. Note that there is no isobestic point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption curves measured on two films (4212 and 9.5% DCM) that show that there are two types of ringing on the data, one of which is due to a Fabry–Perot effect and one that is a real absorption feature. The feature at close to 442 nm is due to light leakage in our spectrophotometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fits of an exponential and two Gaussian functions to the measured absorption curve for 4212 and 8.38% DCM (unbleached).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between index of refraction measured by m-line measurement at 1.3 µm and index calculated from absorption spectra using the Kramers–Kronig relation at 1.3 µm. The curves indicate calculated results and the points with error bars represent measured results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change in dye Gaussian amplitude versus dose for different bleaching wavelengths (365, 405, and 436 nm). Bleaching parameters are given in Table 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Change in dye Gaussian amplitude versus bleaching time for samples of different thicknesses of 4212 and 9.5% DCM. Bleaching parameters are given in Table 2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Bleaching rate as a function of concentration. Bleaching time is 30 min.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Change in dye Gaussian amplitude versus bleaching time for different concentrations. Bleaching parameters are given in Table 3.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison between simulated and measured results for 4212 and 3.37% DCM film bleached for 5 h and 17 h (d = 3.86 µm).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison between simulated and measured results for 4212 and 9.5% DCM film bleached for 20 min, 1 h, and 3 h (d = 1.92 µm).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison between simulated and measured results for 4212 and 9.5% DCM film bleached for 5 min, 30 min, and 3 h (d = 0.82 µm).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Bleaching Parameters for Intensity Characterization of Bleaching Performed on 4212 and 9.5% DCM

Tables Icon

Table 2 Bleaching Parameters for Thickness Characterization of Bleaching Performed on 4212 and 9.5% DCM

Tables Icon

Table 3 Bleaching Parameters for Doping Concentration Characterization of Bleaching

Equations (23)

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A=ABB+ADG+ASG,
ADG,SGλ=A0c, dexp-λ-λ¯DG,SG22σDG,SG2 ×fDG,SGIλn, c, d, t,
ABB=ABBdexp-Aeλ,
Δnω0=cπ0Δαωω2-ω02dω,
A0dfDGdt300=-r300I300,
A0dfDGdt365=-r365I365,
A0dfDGdt405=-r405I405,
A0dfDGdt436=-r436I436,
dfDGdttotal=dfDGdt300+dfDGdt365+dfDGdt405+dfDGdt436.
fDGIλn, t=K exp-R300I300+R365I365+R405I405+R436I436t,
fDGIλn, d, t=exp-R365I365SC365+R405I405SC405+R436I436SC436t.
η=ηDGηDG+ηSGη0DGη0DG+η0SG,
fDGIλn, d, t=exp-R365I365+R405I405+R436I436ηt.
A0d=A dd0,
A0dfDGt=A dd0exp-R365I365+R405I405+R436I436d0d t.
fDGIλn, d, t=exp-R365I365SC365+R405I405SC405+R436I436SC436d0d ηt.
A0c=A cc0,
fDGIλn, c, d, t=exp-R365I365SC365+R405I405SC405+R436I436SC436c0cd0d ηt.
A0c, d=A cc0dd0,
ASGc, d=A1cc0dd0,
ABBd=A2dd0,
fDGIλn, c, d, t=exp-R365I365SC365+R405I405SC405+R436I436SC436c0cd0d ηt,
fSGIλn, c, d, t1.

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