Abstract

High-temporal-resolution spectral absorption data were acquired by use of one bottom-mounted (∼68-m) and three moored spectral absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 meters at 14, 37, and 52 m) on the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf during the fall 1996 period of the Coastal Mixing and Optics experiment. We employed a previously published spectral absorption model with the data to partition total absorption into absorption by water, phytoplankton, detritus, and gelbstoff (dissolved matter). We validated the model by comparing its results against coincident in vivo absorption coefficients derived from discrete bottle samples. Correlations between modeled and in vivo spectra range from 0.873 to 0.998. We optimized these correlations to determine the model parameters. These parameters could not be determined solely from the moored ac-9 results. Therefore a separate set of absorption measurements (from discrete bottle samples) was necessary to permit values for the model parameters to be determined. Model results allow us to separate particulate and dissolved components of absorption and to examine the temporal variability and the vertical distributions and concentrations of each component, given the total absorption in the water column.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  4. W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
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  5. M. J. Behrenfeld, P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
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  6. O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. J. Bruce, M. Borgerson, C. Moore, A. Weidemann, “Hi-Star: a spectrophotometer for measuring the absorption and attenuation of natural waters in-situ and in the laboratory,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 637–642 (1996).
  10. A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
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  11. T. D. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high-resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 383–413 (1991).
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  14. D. C. Twichell, C. E. McClennen, B. Butman, “Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf,” J. Sediment. Petrol. 51, 269–280 (1981).
  15. R. Bartz, R. W. Spinrad, J. C. Kitchen, “A low power, high resolution, in situ fluorometer for profiling and moored applications in water,” in Ocean Optics IX, SPIE925, 157–170 (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).
  31. A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. B. Prezelin, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106 (personal communications, 1998).
  34. J. J. Cura, “Phytoplankton,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), p. 215.

1998 (3)

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high-resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 383–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

1981 (2)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest of natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Twichell, C. E. McClennen, B. Butman, “Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf,” J. Sediment. Petrol. 51, 269–280 (1981).

Agrawal, Y. C.

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest of natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, J. A.

J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartz, R.

R. Bartz, R. W. Spinrad, J. C. Kitchen, “A low power, high resolution, in situ fluorometer for profiling and moored applications in water,” in Ocean Optics IX, SPIE925, 157–170 (1988).

R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, M. B. White, R. E. Stevenson, eds., Proc. SPIE160, 102–108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Bogucki, D.

J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borgerson, M.

E. J. Bruce, M. Borgerson, C. Moore, A. Weidemann, “Hi-Star: a spectrophotometer for measuring the absorption and attenuation of natural waters in-situ and in the laboratory,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 637–642 (1996).

Boyle, E.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, E. J.

E. J. Bruce, M. Borgerson, C. Moore, A. Weidemann, “Hi-Star: a spectrophotometer for measuring the absorption and attenuation of natural waters in-situ and in the laboratory,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 637–642 (1996).

Bruce, L.

C. C. Moore, L. Bruce, “ac-9 Protocols,” (WETLabs, Inc., Philomath, Ore., 1996).

Butman, B.

D. C. Twichell, C. E. McClennen, B. Butman, “Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf,” J. Sediment. Petrol. 51, 269–280 (1981).

D. C. Twichell, B. Butman, R. S. Lewis, “Shallow structure, surficial geology, and the processes currently shaping the bank,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 31–37.

Carder, K. L.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. S.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cura, J. J.

J. J. Cura, “Phytoplankton,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), p. 215.

Dickey, T.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high-resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 383–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Doss, W.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frye, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Hill, P. S.

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Jannasch, H.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

Jones, B. H.

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, C. D.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Kitchen, J. C.

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from in situ spectral absorption meter data,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).

R. Bartz, R. W. Spinrad, J. C. Kitchen, “A low power, high resolution, in situ fluorometer for profiling and moored applications in water,” in Ocean Optics IX, SPIE925, 157–170 (1988).

Knap, A.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosro, P. M.

J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

LeHaitre, M.

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R. S.

D. C. Twichell, B. Butman, R. S. Lewis, “Shallow structure, surficial geology, and the processes currently shaping the bank,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 31–37.

Maffione, R. A.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Manov, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClennen, C. E.

D. C. Twichell, C. E. McClennen, B. Butman, “Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf,” J. Sediment. Petrol. 51, 269–280 (1981).

McNeil, J.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, A.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Moore, C.

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Bruce, M. Borgerson, C. Moore, A. Weidemann, “Hi-Star: a spectrophotometer for measuring the absorption and attenuation of natural waters in-situ and in the laboratory,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 637–642 (1996).

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from in situ spectral absorption meter data,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).

Moore, C. C.

C. C. Moore, L. Bruce, “ac-9 Protocols,” (WETLabs, Inc., Philomath, Ore., 1996).

Morrow, J. H.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Mueller, J. L.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. B.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Ondrusek, M. E.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

Pak, H.

R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, M. B. White, R. E. Stevenson, eds., Proc. SPIE160, 102–108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore., 97331 (personal communications, 1996).

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petrenko, A. A.

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, S. D.

J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prezelin, B. B.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Prezelin, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106 (personal communications, 1998).

Roesler, C.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sigurdson, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest of natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosik, H.

H. Sosik, Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 20543 (personal communications, 1997).

Spinrad, R. W.

R. Bartz, R. W. Spinrad, J. C. Kitchen, “A low power, high resolution, in situ fluorometer for profiling and moored applications in water,” in Ocean Optics IX, SPIE925, 157–170 (1988).

Stegmann, P. M.

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Trees, C. C.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Twichell, D. C.

D. C. Twichell, C. E. McClennen, B. Butman, “Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf,” J. Sediment. Petrol. 51, 269–280 (1981).

D. C. Twichell, B. Butman, R. S. Lewis, “Shallow structure, surficial geology, and the processes currently shaping the bank,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 31–37.

Weidemann, A.

E. J. Bruce, M. Borgerson, C. Moore, A. Weidemann, “Hi-Star: a spectrophotometer for measuring the absorption and attenuation of natural waters in-situ and in the laboratory,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 637–642 (1996).

Weidemann, A. D.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. H.

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, A. J.

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, M. B. White, R. E. Stevenson, eds., Proc. SPIE160, 102–108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from in situ spectral absorption meter data,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

T. D. Dickey, G. C. Chang, Y. C. Agrawal, A. J. Williams, P. S. Hill, “Sediment resuspension in the wakes of hurricanes Edouard and Hortense,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3133–3136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Barth, D. Bogucki, S. D. Pierce, P. M. Kosro, “Secondary circulation associated with a shelfbreak front,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2761–2764 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,333–13,344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Petrenko, B. H. Jones, T. D. Dickey, M. LeHaitre, C. Moore, “Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25,061–25,071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135–13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. S. Cleveland, W. Doss, C. D. Kennedy, R. A. Maffione, J. L. Mueller, R. Stone, C. C. Trees, A. D. Weidemann, W. H. Wells, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,201–13,220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Sediment. Petrol. (1)

D. C. Twichell, C. E. McClennen, B. Butman, “Morphology and processes associated with the accumulation of the fine-grained sediment deposit on the southern New England shelf,” J. Sediment. Petrol. 51, 269–280 (1981).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

M. J. Behrenfeld, P. G. Falkowski, “A consumer’s guide to phytoplankton primary productivity models,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1479–1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

O. Schofield, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, P. M. Stegmann, N. B. Nelson, M. R. Lewis, K. S. Baker, “Variability in spectral and nonspectral measurements of photosynthetic light utilization efficiencies,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 253–271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. (1)

T. D. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high-resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 383–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

D. C. Twichell, B. Butman, R. S. Lewis, “Shallow structure, surficial geology, and the processes currently shaping the bank,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 31–37.

R. Bartz, R. W. Spinrad, J. C. Kitchen, “A low power, high resolution, in situ fluorometer for profiling and moored applications in water,” in Ocean Optics IX, SPIE925, 157–170 (1988).

R. Bartz, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A transmissometer for profiling and moored observations in water,” in Ocean Optics V, M. B. White, R. E. Stevenson, eds., Proc. SPIE160, 102–108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, “Preliminary results from in situ spectral absorption meter data,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 330–337 (1992).

C. C. Moore, L. Bruce, “ac-9 Protocols,” (WETLabs, Inc., Philomath, Ore., 1996).

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Bruce, M. Borgerson, C. Moore, A. Weidemann, “Hi-Star: a spectrophotometer for measuring the absorption and attenuation of natural waters in-situ and in the laboratory,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 637–642 (1996).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

B. B. Prezelin, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93106 (personal communications, 1998).

J. J. Cura, “Phytoplankton,” in Georges Bank, R. H. Backus, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), p. 215.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 290–302 (1990).

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

W. S. Pegau, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore., 97331 (personal communications, 1996).

H. Sosik, Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 20543 (personal communications, 1997).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geographic map indicating the site of the mooring and tripod used for the present study. Schematic diagrams of mooring and tripod are also shown. OPL, Ocean Physics Laboratory; BIOPS, bio-optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow chart diagramming the procedures used for data analysis, beginning with the measurement of a t-w (λ) and a g (λ) with ac-9’s (without and with a 0.2-µm filter, respectively). Model inputs and outputs are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-series (6-h averaged) of total absorption spectra at (a) 37 m, (b) 52 m, and (c) 68 m. B, observed phytoplankton bloom; E, time of passage of Hurricane Edouard; H, time of passage of Hurricane Hortense. Dates are presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time series of the ratio a t-w (440):a t-w (676) (6-h-averaged) and chlorophyll-a concentrations derived from the WETStar fluorometer plotted with an arbitrary scale (beneath ratio time series) at (a) 37 m, (b) 52 m, and (c) 68 m. Note the change in scales of the ordinate axes. Solid horizontal lines, means of the time series; dashed horizontal lines, one standard deviation from the mean. Dates are presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo bottle sample measured (solid curves) and ac-9-derived (dashed curves): (a) total absorption spectra without water, (b) phytoplankton absorption normalized to the 676-nm wavelength, (c) detrital absorption, (d) gelbstoff absorption for 21 August 1996 (year day 234); (e) total absorption without water, (f) phytoplankton absorption normalized to the 676-nm wavelength, (g) detrital absorption, (h) gelbstoff absorption for 31 August 1996 (year day 244) from the model of Roesler et al.7 at the 37-m depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In vivo bottle sample measured (solid curves) and ac-9-derived (dashed curves): (a) total absorption spectra without water, (b) phytoplankton absorption normalized to the 676-nm wavelength, (c) detrital absorption, (d) gelbstoff absorption for 21 August 1996 (year day 234); (e) total absorption without water, (f) phytoplankton absorption normalized to the 676-nm wavelength, (g) detrital absorption, (h) gelbstoff absorption for 25 August 1996 (year day 238) from the model of Roesler et al.7 at the 52-m depth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series (6-h average) of 37-m (a) total absorption spectra (without water) measured by the ac-9, (b) phytoplankton absorption spectra, and (c) detrital-plus-gelbstoff absorption estimated from the model of Roesler et al.7 B, timing of a phytoplankton bloom; E, time of passage of Hurricane Edouard. Dates are presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time series (6-h average) of 52-m (a) total absorption spectra (without water) measured by the ac-9, (b) phytoplankton absorption spectra, and (c) detrital-plus-gelbstoff absorption estimated from the model of Roesler et al.7 B, timing of a phytoplankton bloom; E, time of passage of Hurricane Edouard; H, time of passage of Hurricane Hortense. Dates are presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time series (6-h average) of 68-m (a) total absorption spectra (without water) measured by the ac-9, (b) phytoplankton absorption spectra, and (c) detrital-plus-gelbstoff absorption estimated from the model of Roesler et al.7 B, timing of a phytoplankton bloom; E, time of passage of Hurricane Edouard; H, time of passage of Hurricane Hortense. Dates are presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time series of 6-h averaged (a) a ph(412):a ph(676), (b) a ph(440):a ph(676), (c) a ph(488):a ph(676), (d) a ph(510):a ph(676), (e) a ph(532):a ph(676), and (f) a ph(555):a ph(676) at the 37-m depth estimated from the model of Roesler et al. Solid horizontal lines, means of the time series; dashed horizontal lines, one standard deviation from the mean. Dates also presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Frequency autospectra for 6-h-averaged (a) a ph(412):a ph(676), (b) a ph(440):a ph(676), (c) a ph(488):a ph(676), (d) a ph(510):a ph(676), (e) a ph(532):a ph(676), and (f) a ph(555):a ph(676) at the 37-m depth estimated from the model of Roesler et al. The dashed vertical lines labeled SD indicate a semi-diurnal tidal period (0.52 day; 12.42 h), and the dashed vertical lines labeled D indicate a diel period (1 day).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Phytoplankton absorption spectra partitioned from total absorption at 37 m from the model of Roesler et al. on 26 August 1996 [year day (YD) 239] during a phytoplankton bloom and 22 July 1996 (year day 204) during nonbloom conditions.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Time series of the ratio a ph(440):a ph(676) estimated from the model of Roesler et al. at the depths shown. Note the change in the scales of the ordinate axes. Solid horizontal lines, means of the time series; dashed horizontal lines, one standard deviation from the mean. Dates are presented as decimal year days, with the convention that 0 h UTC on 1 January is day 1.0.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Model Parameters and Regression Results Derived from the Spectral Model of Roesler et al.a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Percent Difference between Modeled and Measured Absorption for the Spectral Model of Roesler et al.7 throughout All Depths and Time Periods

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average Total and Partitioned Absorption and Percent Contribution to Total Absorption at the 412-nm wavelength at 37-, 52-, and 68-m Depth Derived from the Spectral Model of Roesler et al. Averaged over the Available Time Series at Each Depth

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

atλ=awλ+aphλ+adλ+agλ.
agλ=agλrefexp-C0λ-λref,
ad+gλ=ad+gλrefexpC2d+gλref-400exp-C2d+gλ-400,
ad+g440=at-w440-at-w676ϕ440:676,
aphλ=at-wλ-ad+gλ,
adλ=ad+gλ-agλ.

Metrics