Abstract

In earlier studies of passive remote sensing of shallow-water bathymetry, bottom depths were usually derived by empirical regression. This approach provides rapid data processing, but it requires knowledge of a few true depths for the regression parameters to be determined, and it cannot reveal in-water constituents. In this study a newly developed hyperspectral, remote-sensing reflectance model for shallow water is applied to data from computer simulations and field measurements. In the process, a remote-sensing reflectance spectrum is modeled by a set of values of absorption, backscattering, bottom albedo, and bottom depth; then it is compared with the spectrum from measurements. The difference between the two spectral curves is minimized by adjusting the model values in a predictor–corrector scheme. No information in addition to the measured reflectance is required. When the difference reaches a minimum, or the set of variables is optimized, absorption coefficients and bottom depths along with other properties are derived simultaneously. For computer-simulated data at a wind speed of 5 m/s the retrieval error was 5.3% for depths ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 m and 7.0% for total absorption coefficients at 440 nm ranging from 0.04 to 0.24 m-1. At a wind speed of 10 m/s the errors were 5.1% for depth and 6.3% for total absorption at 440 nm. For field data with depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 m the difference was 10.9% (R 2 = 0.96, N = 37) between inversion-derived and field-measured depth values and just 8.1% (N = 33) for depths greater than 2.0 m. These results suggest that the model and the method used in this study, which do not require in situ calibration measurements, perform very well in retrieving in-water optical properties and bottom depths from above-surface hyperspectral measurements.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. J. Walsh, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, “Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,625–15,637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (5)

W. D. Philpot, “Bathymetric mapping with passive multispectral imagery,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1569–1578 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Steward, R. R. Harey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry through depth soundings analysis and treatment of errors resulting from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chl-a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 635–663 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

1985 (3)

D. R. Lyzenga, “Shallow-water bathymetry using combined lidar and passive multispectral scanner data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 115–125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

1983 (1)

1981 (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation,” , Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Final Technical Report), S. Q. Duntley, ed., (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974), pp. 2.1–2.20.

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, W. L.

F. C. Polcyn, W. L. Brown, I. J. Sattinger, “The measurement of water depth by remote-sensing techniques,” (Willow Run Laboratories, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1970).

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Walsh, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, “Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,625–15,637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Steward, R. R. Harey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. J. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. K.

Davis, C. O.

Dirks, R. W. J.

D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Bottom influence on the reflectance of the sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 279–290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fay, T. H.

Fry, E.

Gentili, B.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters (Part 2): Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 44.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1979).

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harey, R. R.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Steward, R. R. Harey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Jacobs, M. M.

Kiefer, D. A.

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chl-a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 635–663 (1988).

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, Department of Marine Science, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. J. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyzenga, D. R.

D. R. Lyzenga, “Shallow-water bathymetry using combined lidar and passive multispectral scanner data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 115–125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Passive remote-sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features,” Appl. Opt. 17, 379–383 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marra, J.

Marshall, B. R.

Miller, J. R.

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry through depth soundings analysis and treatment of errors resulting from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chl-a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 635–663 (1988).

Mobley, C. D.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 3.0 Users’ Guide, (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif. 94025, 1995), Project 5632.

Morel, A.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters (Part 2): Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 44.

Mueller, J. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. J. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation,” , Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mueller-Karger, F. E.

J. J. Walsh, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, “Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,625–15,637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry through depth soundings analysis and treatment of errors resulting from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Ortner, P. B.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Steward, R. R. Harey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paredes, J. M.

Patch, J. S.

Peacock, T. G.

Perry, M. J.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Philpot, W. D.

Polcyn, F. C.

F. C. Polcyn, W. L. Brown, I. J. Sattinger, “The measurement of water depth by remote-sensing techniques,” (Willow Run Laboratories, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1970).

Pope, R.

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics Vol. 1: Introduction, NTIS PB-259 793/8ST (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1976).

Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sattinger, I. J.

F. C. Polcyn, W. L. Brown, I. J. Sattinger, “The measurement of water depth by remote-sensing techniques,” (Willow Run Laboratories, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1970).

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1979).

Spero, R. E.

Spitzer, D.

D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Bottom influence on the reflectance of the sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 279–290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. F.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Steward, R. R. Harey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. J. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Walker, C. L.

Walsh, J. J.

J. J. Walsh, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, “Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,625–15,637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (13)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Passive remote-sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features,” Appl. Opt. 17, 379–383 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Philpot, “Radiative transfer in stratified waters: a single-scattering approximation for irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4123–4132 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Philpot, “Bathymetric mapping with passive multispectral imagery,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1569–1578 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 1. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 35, 463–474 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters (Part 2): Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pope, E. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure waters: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Paredes, R. E. Spero, “Water depth mapping from passive remote-sensing data under a generalized ratio assumption,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1134–1135 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Clark, T. H. Fay, C. L. Walker, “Bathymetry calculations with Landsat 4 TM imagery under a generalized ratio assumption,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4036–4038 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Chl-a specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light limited phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 635–663 (1988).

Int. J. Remote Sensing (5)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1373–1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Bottom influence on the reflectance of the sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 8, 279–290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry through depth soundings analysis and treatment of errors resulting from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lyzenga, “Shallow-water bathymetry using combined lidar and passive multispectral scanner data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 6, 115–125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll-a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20,599–20,611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,279–13,294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, “Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,625–15,637 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (8)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Steward, R. R. Harey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Final Technical Report), S. Q. Duntley, ed., (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974), pp. 2.1–2.20.

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, Department of Marine Science, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. J. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation,” , Vol. 5, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics Vol. 1: Introduction, NTIS PB-259 793/8ST (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1976).

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 3.0 Users’ Guide, (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif. 94025, 1995), Project 5632.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 1–43 (1979).

F. C. Polcyn, W. L. Brown, I. J. Sattinger, “The measurement of water depth by remote-sensing techniques,” (Willow Run Laboratories, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1970).

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 44.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hydrolight-calculated r rs (line) versus SA-model-determined r rs (symbols) for three viewing angles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A 550-nm normalized bottom-albedo spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Locations of field data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Inversion-derived depths compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Inversion-derived total absorption at 440 nm compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Inversion-derived pigment absorption at 440 nm compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Inversion-derived gelbstoff absorption at 440 nm compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Inversion-derived depths compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. The Y value used in inversion was random (see text). (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Inversion-derived total absorption at 440 nm compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. The Y value used in inversion was random (see text). (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Inversion-derived pigment absorption at 440 nm compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. The Y value used in inversion was random (see text). (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Inversion-derived gelbstoff absorption at 440 nm compared with input values for simulated data with 5 m/s of wind. The Y value used in inversion was random (see text). (b) As in (a) with 10 m/s of wind.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Inversion-derived depths compared with field data.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Inversion-derived pigment absorption coefficient at 440 nm compared with pad-measured values for field data. (The open circle one was not used in error calculation.)

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Examples of inversion-derived versus pad-measured pigment absorption spectra.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Inversion-derived gelbstoff absorption coefficient at 440 nm compared with measured values for field data.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Input Values to Hydrolight Calculation Compared with Inversion-Derived Values

Tables Icon

Table 3 Input Values to Hydrolight Calculation Compared with Inversion-Derived Values

Equations (40)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rrsλ=faλ, βλ, ρλ, H, θw, θ, φ,
Rrs0.5rrs11.5rrs,
rrs=rrsC+rrsBrrsdp1 -exp-1cosθw+DuCκH+1π ρ exp-1cosθw+DuBκH,
rrsdp0.084+0.170uu.
DuC1.031+2.4u0.5,  DuB1.041+5.4u0.5
u=bb/a+bb,  κ=a+bb,
bb=bbw+bbp
a=aw+aϕ+ag.
rrsrrsdp1-exp-1cosθw+DuCcosθκH+1π ρ exp-1cosθw+DuBcosθκH,
bbλ=bbwλ+ελbbpλ.
ελ1.0+0.1+0.8bbpλ/bbλsinθsinθw.
Trs=LuEd,  Srs=LskyEd.
TrsλRrsλ+FθSrsλ+Δ,
Rrsrawλ=Trsλ-FθSrsλ,
RrsrawλRrsλ+Δ.
aϕλ=a0λ+a1λlnPP,
agλ=G exp-Sλ-440,
bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ
bbp=X400λY,
Y3.441-3.17 exp-2.01χ,
Rrsinλ=Rrsrawλ-Rrsraw750.
ρλ=Bρsdλ,
Rˆrsλ=Rrsrawλ-Δ.
err=400675Rrs-Rˆrs2+750830Rrs-Rˆrs20.5400675 Rˆrs+750830 Rˆrs,
Pin=0.072 Rrsin440/Rrsin550-1.62Ref. 33, Gin=Pin, Xin=30aw640Rrsin640, Bin=0.2 equivalent to ρ550=0.2, Hin=10.0, Δin=Rrsraw750.
Trs=LuLGRGπ,  Srs=LskyLGRGπ,
aϕ=ap-ad.
δ=expmeanlnQiderQimea-1,
w=maxrrsBλrrsλ,
rrs=rrsdp1-α0exp-1cosθw+D01+D1u0.5κH+α1ρ exp-1cosθw+D01+D1u0.5κH,
rrsdp=g0+g1ug2u
aϕ440=0.06 chl-a0.65,43
agλ=ag440exp-0.014λ-440,28
bpλ=550/λchl-a0.62.
g00.07, g10.155, g20.752;α01.03, α10.31;D01.2, D12.0;D01.1, D14.9.
g00.084, g10.170, g2=1;α0=1,α1=1/π;D01.03,D12.4;D01.04,D15.4.
rrsrrsdp1-exp-1cosθw+1.031+2.4u0.5κH+1π ρ exp-1cosθw+1.041+5.4u0.5κH,
rrsdp0.084+0.17uu.
Rrs=ζrrs1-Γrrs,
Rrs0.5rrs11.5rrs.

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