Abstract

The influence of spherical aberrations on laser-induced plasma formation in water by 6-ns Nd:YAG laser pulses was investigated for focusing angles that are used in intraocular microsurgery. Waveform distortions of 5.5λ and 18.5λ between the optical axis and the 1/e 2 irradiance values of the laser beam were introduced by replacement of laser achromats in the delivery system by planoconvex lenses. Aberrations of 18.5λ increased the energy threshold for plasma formation by a factor of 8.5 compared with the optimized system. The actual irradiance threshold for optical breakdown was determined from the threshold energy in the optimized system and the spot size measured with a knife-edge technique. For aberrations of 18.5λ the irradiance threshold was 48 times larger than the actual threshold when it was calculated by use of the diffraction-limited spot size but was 35 times smaller when it was calculated by use of the measured spot size. The latter discrepancy is probably due to hot spots in the focal region of the aberrated laser beam. Hence the determination of the optical-breakdown threshold in the presence of aberrations leads to highly erroneous results. In the presence of aberrations the plasmas are as much as 3 times longer and the transmitted energy is 17–20 times higher than without aberrations. Aberrations can thus strongly compromise the precision and the safety of intraocular microsurgery. They can further account for a major part of the differences in the breakdown-threshold and the plasma-transmission values reported in previous investigations.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. C. G. Morgan, “Laser-induced breakdown in gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Evaluation of contact lenses for laser therapy. Part I,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 1–20 (1986).
  31. A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Vogel, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93, 1259–1269 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capone, J. Mellerio, “Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 1: analysis of the plasma starting times,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3668 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  40. F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Santana Haro, J. C. Dainty, “Single-pass measurements of the wave-front aberrations of the human eye by use of retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 24, 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, “Nonlinear absorption: intraocular microsurgery and laser lithotripsy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 895–912 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 847–860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Nahen, A. Vogel, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part II. Plasma transmission, scattering and reflection,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 861–871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Docchio, “Spatial and temporal dynamics of light attenuation and transmission by plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Nouv. Cimento 13, 87–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gitomer, R. D. Jones, “Laser-produced plasmas in medicine,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 1209–1219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

M. R. C. Capon, F. Docchio, J. Mellerio, “Nd:YAG laser photodisruption: an experimental investigation on shielding and multiple plasma formation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 226, 362–366 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, “Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in ocular media irradiated by single Nd:YAG pulses of different durations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 437–443 (1988).

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capone, J. Mellerio, “Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 1: analysis of the plasma starting times,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3668 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, J. Marshall, “Experimental investigation of optical breakdown thresholds in ocular media under single pulse irradiation with different pulse durations,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 83–93 (1986).

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Evaluation of contact lenses for laser therapy. Part I,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 1–20 (1986).

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93, 1259–1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, “Plasma formation and shielding by three ophthalmic neodymium-YAG lasers,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 427–434 (1983).
[PubMed]

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, C. Kittrell, “Plasma shielding by Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 90, 1003–1006 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

W. M. Rosenblum, J. L. Christensen, “Objective and subjective spherical aberration measurement of the human eye,” Progr. Opt. 13, 69–91 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

C. G. Morgan, “Laser-induced breakdown in gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloembergen, “Dielectric-breakdown threshold and nonlinear-refractive-index measurements with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 706–714 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, C. G. Morgan, “Aberration effects in the interaction of focused laser beams with matter,” J. Appl. Phys. J. Phys. D 7, 1907–1917 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

L. R. Evans, C. G. Morgan, “Lens aberration effects in optical-frequency breakdown of gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1099–1102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubish, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

1917 (1)

J. W. Rayleigh, “On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity,” Philos. Mag. 34, 94–98 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Aaron, J. M.

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, C. G. Morgan, “Aberration effects in the interaction of focused laser beams with matter,” J. Appl. Phys. J. Phys. D 7, 1907–1917 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Asiyo, M.

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

W. L. Smith, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloembergen, “Dielectric-breakdown threshold and nonlinear-refractive-index measurements with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 706–714 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J.

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

W. L. Smith, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloembergen, “Dielectric-breakdown threshold and nonlinear-refractive-index measurements with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 706–714 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, B. A. Rockwell, “Shielding effectiveness of femtosecond laser-induced plasmas in ultrapure water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction IV, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1882, 347–354 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cain, C. P.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubish, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

Capon, M. R. C.

M. R. C. Capon, F. Docchio, J. Mellerio, “Nd:YAG laser photodisruption: an experimental investigation on shielding and multiple plasma formation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 226, 362–366 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capone, M. R. C.

Christensen, J. L.

W. M. Rosenblum, J. L. Christensen, “Objective and subjective spherical aberration measurement of the human eye,” Progr. Opt. 13, 69–91 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

Deutsch, T. F.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DiCarlo, C. D.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Docchio, F.

F. Docchio, “Spatial and temporal dynamics of light attenuation and transmission by plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Nouv. Cimento 13, 87–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. C. Capon, F. Docchio, J. Mellerio, “Nd:YAG laser photodisruption: an experimental investigation on shielding and multiple plasma formation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 226, 362–366 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, “Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in ocular media irradiated by single Nd:YAG pulses of different durations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 437–443 (1988).

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capone, J. Mellerio, “Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 1: analysis of the plasma starting times,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3668 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, J. Marshall, “Experimental investigation of optical breakdown thresholds in ocular media under single pulse irradiation with different pulse durations,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 83–93 (1986).

Dürr, U.

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, L. R.

L. R. Evans, C. G. Morgan, “Lens aberration effects in optical-frequency breakdown of gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1099–1102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fankhauser, F.

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Evaluation of contact lenses for laser therapy. Part I,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 1–20 (1986).

F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser,” in Ophthalmic Lasers, 3rd ed., F. A. L’Esperance, ed. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1989), pp. 781–886.

Frenz, M.

Frieser, A.

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Giger, H.

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gitomer, S. J.

S. J. Gitomer, R. D. Jones, “Laser-produced plasmas in medicine,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 1209–1219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Gubish, R. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubish, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558–578 (1966).

Guirao, A.

Hammer, D. X.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, A. Vogel, “Ultrashort pulse laser induced bubble creation thresholds in ocular media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 30–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93, 1259–1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzfuss, J.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93, 1259–1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ireland, C. L. M.

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, C. G. Morgan, “Aberration effects in the interaction of focused laser beams with matter,” J. Appl. Phys. J. Phys. D 7, 1907–1917 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

Johnston, T. F.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. D.

S. J. Gitomer, R. D. Jones, “Laser-produced plasmas in medicine,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 1209–1219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jungnickel, K.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, P. K.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kittrell, C.

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, C. Kittrell, “Plasma shielding by Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 90, 1003–1006 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwasniewska, S.

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Evaluation of contact lenses for laser therapy. Part I,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 1–20 (1986).

F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser,” in Ophthalmic Lasers, 3rd ed., F. A. L’Esperance, ed. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1989), pp. 781–886.

LaMuraglia, G. M.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93, 1259–1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Loertscher, H. P.

H. P. Loertscher, “Laser-induced breakdown for ophthalmic applications,” in YAG Laser Ophthalmic Microsurgery, S. C. Trokel, ed. (Appleton-Century-Crofts, Norwalk, Conn., 1983), pp. 39–66.

Marshall, J.

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, J. Marshall, “Experimental investigation of optical breakdown thresholds in ocular media under single pulse irradiation with different pulse durations,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 83–93 (1986).

Mellerio, J.

M. R. C. Capon, F. Docchio, J. Mellerio, “Nd:YAG laser photodisruption: an experimental investigation on shielding and multiple plasma formation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 226, 362–366 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capone, J. Mellerio, “Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 1: analysis of the plasma starting times,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3668 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, C. G.

C. G. Morgan, “Laser-induced breakdown in gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, C. G. Morgan, “Aberration effects in the interaction of focused laser beams with matter,” J. Appl. Phys. J. Phys. D 7, 1907–1917 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Evans, C. G. Morgan, “Lens aberration effects in optical-frequency breakdown of gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1099–1102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nahen, K.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Nahen, A. Vogel, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part II. Plasma transmission, scattering and reflection,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 861–871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 847–860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noojin, G. D.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, A. Vogel, “Ultrashort pulse laser induced bubble creation thresholds in ocular media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 30–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noojin, G. N.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prince, M. R.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, “Plasma formation and shielding by three ophthalmic neodymium-YAG lasers,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 427–434 (1983).
[PubMed]

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, C. Kittrell, “Plasma shielding by Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 90, 1003–1006 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, The Nd:YAG Laser in Ophthalmology (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1985).

Rayleigh, J. W.

J. W. Rayleigh, “On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity,” Philos. Mag. 34, 94–98 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Regondi, P.

Roach, W. P.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, B. A. Rockwell, “Shielding effectiveness of femtosecond laser-induced plasmas in ultrapure water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction IV, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1882, 347–354 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, B. A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, A. Vogel, “Ultrashort pulse laser induced bubble creation thresholds in ocular media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 30–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, B. A. Rockwell, “Shielding effectiveness of femtosecond laser-induced plasmas in ultrapure water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction IV, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1882, 347–354 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rol, P.

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rol, F. Fankhauser, S. Kwasniewska, “Evaluation of contact lenses for laser therapy. Part I,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 1–20 (1986).

Rosenblum, W. M.

W. M. Rosenblum, J. L. Christensen, “Objective and subjective spherical aberration measurement of the human eye,” Progr. Opt. 13, 69–91 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sacchi, C. A.

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, “Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in ocular media irradiated by single Nd:YAG pulses of different durations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 437–443 (1988).

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, J. Marshall, “Experimental investigation of optical breakdown thresholds in ocular media under single pulse irradiation with different pulse durations,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 83–93 (1986).

Santana Haro, L. D.

Sasnett, M. W.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sasnett, “Propagation of multimode laser beams—the M2 factor,” in The Physics and Technology of Laser Resonators, D. R. Hall, P. E. Jackson, eds. (Adam Hilger, New York, 1989), pp. 94–105.

Schweiger, P.

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, J. H. Bechtel, N. Bloembergen, “Dielectric-breakdown threshold and nonlinear-refractive-index measurements with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 706–714 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, R. F.

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, C. Kittrell, “Plasma shielding by Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 90, 1003–1006 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, “Plasma formation and shielding by three ophthalmic neodymium-YAG lasers,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 427–434 (1983).
[PubMed]

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, The Nd:YAG Laser in Ophthalmology (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1985).

Stolarski, D. J.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teng, P.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Theisen, D.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 847–860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, A. Vogel, “Ultrashort pulse laser induced bubble creation thresholds in ocular media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 30–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toth, C. A.

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, B. A. Rockwell, “Shielding effectiveness of femtosecond laser-induced plasmas in ultrapure water,” in Laser Tissue Interaction IV, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1882, 347–354 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 847–860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Nahen, A. Vogel, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part II. Plasma transmission, scattering and reflection,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 861–871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, “Nonlinear absorption: intraocular microsurgery and laser lithotripsy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 895–912 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, W. Lauterborn, “Cavitation bubble dynamics and acoustic transient generation in ocular surgery with pulsed neodymium:YAG lasers,” Ophthalmology 93, 1259–1269 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, A. Vogel, “Ultrashort pulse laser induced bubble creation thresholds in ocular media,” in Laser Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 30–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. F. Steinert, C. A. Puliafito, “Plasma formation and shielding by three ophthalmic neodymium-YAG lasers,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 427–434 (1983).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B. 68, 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. P. Cain, C. D. DiCarlo, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, G. N. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, D. X. Hammer, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Retinal damage and laser-induced breakdown produced by ultrashort-pulse lasers,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234 Suppl. 1, S28–S37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

M. R. C. Capon, F. Docchio, J. Mellerio, “Nd:YAG laser photodisruption: an experimental investigation on shielding and multiple plasma formation,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 226, 362–366 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fankhauser, U. Dürr, H. Giger, P. Rol, S. Kwasniewska, “Lasers, optical systems and safety in ophthalmology: a review,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 234, 473–487 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: light–tissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240–2260 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, W. P. Roach, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. Part II. Comparison to experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250–2257 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, “Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098–1104 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, R. R. Anderson, “Preferential ablation of calcified arterial plaque with laser-induced plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783–1786 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 847–860 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Nahen, A. Vogel, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. Part II. Plasma transmission, scattering and reflection,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 861–871 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

S. J. Gitomer, R. D. Jones, “Laser-produced plasmas in medicine,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 1209–1219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

F. Docchio, C. A. Sacchi, “Shielding properties of laser-induced plasmas in ocular media irradiated by single Nd:YAG pulses of different durations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 437–443 (1988).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the investigation of plasma formation. For introducing spherical aberrations of different degrees, achromats L 1 and L 2 were replaced by planoconvex lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plasma shape as a function of laser-pulse energy for various degrees of aberration: (a) minimized aberrations, (b) Φ(r G ) = 5.5λ, (c) Φ(r G ) = 18.5λ. The laser light is incident from the right. The arrows indicate the locations of the beam waists. The bar represents a length of 100 µm. The pulse energies are given in microjoules.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated intensity distribution in the focal region for (a) Φ(r G ) = 5.5λ and (b) Φ(r G ) = 18.5λ. The laser light is incident from the right. The vertical and the horizontal bars represent a length of 10 µm and 100 µm, respectively. The three gray levels represent a total irradiance range of 100:1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plasma length as a function of the laser-pulse energy for minimized aberrations (open circles), Φ(r G ) = 5.5λ (open squares), and Φ(r G ) = 18.5λ (filled triangles).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitted energy as a function of the incident laser energy for (a) minimized aberrations and (b) Φ(r G ) = 18.5λ. The shaded areas indicate the threshold region between 10% and 90% breakdown probabilities. E th (the 50% breakdown probability) lies in the center of the shaded area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission as a function of the normalized laser energy β = E/ E th for minimized aberrations (open circles) and Φ(r G ) = 18.5λ (open triangles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Conversion rate E B /E in of the incident light energy E in into cavitation-bubble energy E B for minimized aberrations (open circles), Φ(r G ) = 5.5λ (open squares), and Φ(r G ) = 18.5λ (open triangles).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Breakdown Parameters for Various Degrees of Optical Aberrations

Equations (6)

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ωz=ω01+M2λzπω0221/2,
Φρ=-r0ρ432f3n2n-12-nn+2+2n2-n-42nn+2n-22,
Rmax=TB/1.83 ρ0p-pν1/2,
EB=4π/3p-pν/Rmax3.
Ir, z=2πA0r02λf2201exp0.5 ρ2expikΦρ-0.5uρ2J0vρρdρ2,
u=2πλr0f2z,  v=2πλr0fr.

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