Abstract

Thin films of SiO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, ZrO2, and the mixed oxide H4 (Merck) have been deposited onto nonheated glass substrates by electron-beam evaporation in commercial coating plants. All depositions have been carried out with ion assistance provided by three different ion or plasma sources (end-hall, plasma, and cold-cathode sources). The optical film properties such as index of refraction, extinction coefficient, light scattering, and absorption have been examined by spectrophotometry, laser calorimetry, and total integrated light-scatter measurements. Surface morphology has been investigated by atomic force microscopy studies. Furthermore, films have undergone sand erosion tests for the determination of relative wear resistance. The film properties are compared for the three different ion sources.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. G. Sainty, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Matin, “Protective dielectric coatings produced by ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1116–1119 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Welsch, “Absorption measurements,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 246–249.
  13. A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–303.
  14. M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, H. Niederwald, “Ion beam assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, H. Niederwald, “Ion beam assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

S. Mohan, M. G. Krishna, “A review of ion beam assisted deposition of optical thin films,” Vacuum 46, 645–659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

J. E. Green, “Low energy ion bombardment during film deposition from the vapor phase: effects on microstructure and microchemistry,” Solid State Technol. 14, 115–122 (1987).

1984

Cho, H. J.

Cushing, D.

Duparré, A.

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–303.

Fulton, M. L.

M. L. Fulton, “Application of ion-assisted deposition using a gridless end-hall ion source for volume manufacturing of thin-film optical filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 374–393 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Götzelmann, R.

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, K. Matl, D. Cushing, “Temperature-stable bandpass filters deposited with plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5609–5612 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, W. Klug, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a powerful technology for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 196–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. E.

J. E. Green, “Low energy ion bombardment during film deposition from the vapor phase: effects on microstructure and microchemistry,” Solid State Technol. 14, 115–122 (1987).

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, “Optical thin films produced by energetic particle processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 344–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hagedorn, H.

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, W. Klug, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a powerful technology for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 196–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Kaiser, N.

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, M.

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, H. Niederwald, “Ion beam assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klug, W.

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, W. Klug, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a powerful technology for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 196–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, M. G.

S. Mohan, M. G. Krishna, “A review of ion beam assisted deposition of optical thin films,” Vacuum 46, 645–659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical films produced by ion based techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986), Vol. 32, pp. 115–178.

Matin, P. J.

Matl, K.

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, K. Matl, D. Cushing, “Temperature-stable bandpass filters deposited with plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5609–5612 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, W. Klug, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a powerful technology for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 196–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, S.

S. Mohan, M. G. Krishna, “A review of ion beam assisted deposition of optical thin films,” Vacuum 46, 645–659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

W. G. Sainty, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Matin, “Protective dielectric coatings produced by ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1116–1119 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical films produced by ion based techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986), Vol. 32, pp. 115–178.

Niederwald, H.

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, H. Niederwald, “Ion beam assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, H. Niederwald, “Ion beam assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Schallenberg, U. B.

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Targove, J. D.

Welsch, E.

E. Welsch, “Absorption measurements,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 246–249.

Zöller, A.

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, K. Matl, D. Cushing, “Temperature-stable bandpass filters deposited with plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5609–5612 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, W. Klug, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a powerful technology for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 196–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Solid State Technol.

J. E. Green, “Low energy ion bombardment during film deposition from the vapor phase: effects on microstructure and microchemistry,” Solid State Technol. 14, 115–122 (1987).

Thin Solid Films

M. Kennedy, D. Ristau, H. Niederwald, “Ion beam assisted deposition of MgF2 and YbF3 films,” Thin Solid Films 333, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

S. Mohan, M. G. Krishna, “A review of ion beam assisted deposition of optical thin films,” Vacuum 46, 645–659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Zöller, R. Götzelmann, H. Hagedorn, W. Klug, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a powerful technology for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 196–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Fulton, “Application of ion-assisted deposition using a gridless end-hall ion source for volume manufacturing of thin-film optical filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 374–393 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Niederwald, N. Kaiser, U. B. Schallenberg, A. Duparré, D. Ristau, M. Kennedy, “IAD of oxide coatings at low temperature: a comparison of processes based on different ion sources,” in Optical Thin Films V: New Development, R. L. Hall, ed., Proc. SPIE3133, 205–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, “Absorption measurements,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 246–249.

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–303.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical films produced by ion based techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986), Vol. 32, pp. 115–178.

K. H. Guenther, “Optical thin films produced by energetic particle processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 344–355 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM plots of H4 films on BK7 (a) without IAD at 250 °C, rms = 0.44 nm; (b) with IAD (EH) at room temperature, rms = 0.17 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduction ΔT of optical transmission after sand erosion test: conv, conventional deposition on heated substrates.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ion-Source Parameters for the EH Ion Source, the PS, and the CC Ion Source

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Table 2 Refractive Index n at the Wavelengths λ = 550 nm and λ = 400 nm for Single Layers Deposited by means of the Three Different Ion Sources

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results of Calorimetric Measurements of Film Absorption at λ = 532 nm, Produced by Different Processesa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Light Scatter at λ = 633 nm and rms Roughness from AFM Investigations (Area 50 µm × 50 µm) from Sample Coatings Deposited by means of Three Different Ion Sources

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