Abstract

We propose to use a linear cylindrical taper as an optical line illuminator for various light-emitting-diode-based emerging scanning and display applications. A simple model to explain the mechanism of this line illuminator is presented. Experimental verifications are performed, and main performance characteristics are discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Jiang, “New flat type fluorescent lamp for military LCD backlight,” in Cockpit Displays III, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE2734, 277–282 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Harding, R. G. Waters, “Novel densely packed laser diode array,” Electon. Lett. 27, 2233–2234 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, “The ‘glowing’ optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Optical Inorganic Dielectric Materials and DevicesProc. SPIE2967, 231–236 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Haga, I. Fujieda, F. Okumura, “Compact imaging apparatus for a pen-shaped hand-held scanner,” in Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications, M. M. Bloube, ed., Proc. SPIE3019, 168–173 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, “Clinical potential of the side-glowing optical fibers,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 84–88 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Goldberg, D. J. Ripin, “High-efficiency side-coupling of light into double-cladding fibers using imbedded V-grooves,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 91–92.
  7. Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and signals using embedded mirrors inside a polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “Cost-effective side-coupling polymer fiber optics for optical interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 892–901 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and signals using embedded mirrors inside a polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. M. Harding, R. G. Waters, “Novel densely packed laser diode array,” Electon. Lett. 27, 2233–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anada, T.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berolo, E.

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fasanella, K.

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “Cost-effective side-coupling polymer fiber optics for optical interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 892–901 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujieda, I.

H. Haga, I. Fujieda, F. Okumura, “Compact imaging apparatus for a pen-shaped hand-held scanner,” in Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications, M. M. Bloube, ed., Proc. SPIE3019, 168–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, D. J. Ripin, “High-efficiency side-coupling of light into double-cladding fibers using imbedded V-grooves,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 91–92.

Haga, H.

H. Haga, I. Fujieda, F. Okumura, “Compact imaging apparatus for a pen-shaped hand-held scanner,” in Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications, M. M. Bloube, ed., Proc. SPIE3019, 168–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harding, C. M.

C. M. Harding, R. G. Waters, “Novel densely packed laser diode array,” Electon. Lett. 27, 2233–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. C.

J. C. Jiang, “New flat type fluorescent lamp for military LCD backlight,” in Cockpit Displays III, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE2734, 277–282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, P. C.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “Cost-effective side-coupling polymer fiber optics for optical interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 892–901 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and signals using embedded mirrors inside a polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mashavekhi, M.

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, F.

H. Haga, I. Fujieda, F. Okumura, “Compact imaging apparatus for a pen-shaped hand-held scanner,” in Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications, M. M. Bloube, ed., Proc. SPIE3019, 168–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfafrods, D.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, “Clinical potential of the side-glowing optical fibers,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 84–88 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, “The ‘glowing’ optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Optical Inorganic Dielectric Materials and DevicesProc. SPIE2967, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

L. Goldberg, D. J. Ripin, “High-efficiency side-coupling of light into double-cladding fibers using imbedded V-grooves,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 91–92.

Sewell, P.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spigulis, J.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, “Clinical potential of the side-glowing optical fibers,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 84–88 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, “The ‘glowing’ optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Optical Inorganic Dielectric Materials and DevicesProc. SPIE2967, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stafeckis, M.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, “The ‘glowing’ optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Optical Inorganic Dielectric Materials and DevicesProc. SPIE2967, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Touam, T.

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “Cost-effective side-coupling polymer fiber optics for optical interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 892–901 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and signals using embedded mirrors inside a polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waters, R. G.

C. M. Harding, R. G. Waters, “Novel densely packed laser diode array,” Electon. Lett. 27, 2233–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electon. Lett. (1)

C. M. Harding, R. G. Waters, “Novel densely packed laser diode array,” Electon. Lett. 27, 2233–2234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, T. Anada, “Tapered beam propagation,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1025–1026 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (2)

Y. Li, T. Wang, “Distribution of light and signals using embedded mirrors inside a polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1352–1354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, K. Fasanella, “4 × 16 polymer fiber optical array couplers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 1650–1652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Mashavekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. I. Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fiber coupling using low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, “The ‘glowing’ optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Optical Inorganic Dielectric Materials and DevicesProc. SPIE2967, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Haga, I. Fujieda, F. Okumura, “Compact imaging apparatus for a pen-shaped hand-held scanner,” in Solid State Sensor Arrays: Development and Applications, M. M. Bloube, ed., Proc. SPIE3019, 168–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, “Clinical potential of the side-glowing optical fibers,” in Specialty Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 84–88 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, D. J. Ripin, “High-efficiency side-coupling of light into double-cladding fibers using imbedded V-grooves,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 91–92.

J. C. Jiang, “New flat type fluorescent lamp for military LCD backlight,” in Cockpit Displays III, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE2734, 277–282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of a linear optical taper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated power distribution versus input angle α and distance x.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured power distribution through a collimated beam scanning. (b) Same plot of (a) with a simulated reference plot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the experimental setup showing the scanning stage, a bare taper, and a packaged LED-driven line illuminator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured optical power distribution along the illuminator for the three colors.

Equations (15)

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R1 sin α1=R2 sin α2,
x1 sin β1=x1 sin β2.
n1 sin α=n2 sin β
NA=n1 sin αC=n22-n121/2,
I=dPdω=I0 cos α,
dP=2πI0 cos α sin α dα.
xB=n1x0 sin αNA.
xE=n1x0 sin αn2.
Gx=1σ2πexp-x-μ2σ2,
σ=|xB-xE|3.3,
μ=xB+xE2.
Gx dP=3.3NA2πI0n2 cosαx0n1|n2-NA|×exp-3.3NAn2x2n1|n2-NA|x0 sinα-1.65n2+NA2|n2-NA|2dα.
Px=0π/2 GxdPα.
Ix=rectxe, xbIoPx+Ib expx-xbσb+Ie expxe-xσe,
rectxe, xb=1for xexxb0elsewhere,.

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