Abstract

A unified calibration technique based on ray tracing for optical triangular profilometry is presented. The proposed technique based on the inherent geometric relation between depth and a distorted signal is capable of speedy and accurate measurement without the determination of geometric parameters. The technique can also reduce calibration error caused by the lens distortion of the projector and the camera owing to the reasonable assumption that mapping in a small local area is a linear transformation and the coefficients of the linear transformation may be varied in different local areas. Three classical systems of triangular profilometry, spot inspection, a single-line system, and a projection-grating system, are discussed and demonstrated by experiment.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Halioua, R. S. Krishnamurthy, H.-C. Liu, F.-P. Chiang, “Automated 360° profilometry of 3-D diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2193–2196 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. X. Cheng, X. Y. Su, L. R. Guo, “Automated measurement method for 360° profilometry of diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1274–1278 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ohara, H. Konno, M. Sasaki, M. Suzuki, K. Murata, “Automated 360° profilometry of a three-dimensional diffuse object and its reconstruction by use of the shading model,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4476–4480 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Takeda, K. Mutoh, “Fourier transform profilometry for the automatic measurement of 3-D object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3977–3982 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Saint-Marc, J. L. Jezouin, G. Medioni, “A versatile PC-based range-finding system,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 7(2), 250–256 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Valkenburg, A. M. Mclor, “Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system,” Image Vision Comput. 16, 99–110 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Y. Su, W. Zhou, “Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 355–357 (1990).
  10. A. Asundi, W. Zhou, “Mapping algorithm for 360-deg profilometry with time delayed and integration imaging,” Opt. Eng. 38, 339–344 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Zhou, X. Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Asundi, C. S. Chan, M. R. Sajan, “360° prodilometry: new techniques for display and acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2760–2769 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Asundi, W. Zhou, “Mapping algorithm for 360-deg profilometry with time delayed and integration imaging,” Opt. Eng. 38, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. J. Valkenburg, A. M. Mclor, “Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system,” Image Vision Comput. 16, 99–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

W. Zhou, X. Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Asundi, C. S. Chan, M. R. Sajan, “360° prodilometry: new techniques for display and acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2760–2769 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

P. Saint-Marc, J. L. Jezouin, G. Medioni, “A versatile PC-based range-finding system,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 7(2), 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Cheng, X. Y. Su, L. R. Guo, “Automated measurement method for 360° profilometry of diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1274–1278 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Asundi, A.

A. Asundi, W. Zhou, “Mapping algorithm for 360-deg profilometry with time delayed and integration imaging,” Opt. Eng. 38, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Asundi, C. S. Chan, M. R. Sajan, “360° prodilometry: new techniques for display and acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2760–2769 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. S.

A. Asundi, C. S. Chan, M. R. Sajan, “360° prodilometry: new techniques for display and acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2760–2769 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. X.

Chiang, F.-P.

Guo, L. R.

Halioua, M.

Jezouin, J. L.

P. Saint-Marc, J. L. Jezouin, G. Medioni, “A versatile PC-based range-finding system,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 7(2), 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Konno, H.

Krishnamurthy, R. S.

Liu, H. C.

Liu, H.-C.

Mclor, A. M.

R. J. Valkenburg, A. M. Mclor, “Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system,” Image Vision Comput. 16, 99–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Medioni, G.

P. Saint-Marc, J. L. Jezouin, G. Medioni, “A versatile PC-based range-finding system,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 7(2), 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

Mutoh, K.

Ohara, H.

Saint-Marc, P.

P. Saint-Marc, J. L. Jezouin, G. Medioni, “A versatile PC-based range-finding system,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 7(2), 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sajan, M. R.

A. Asundi, C. S. Chan, M. R. Sajan, “360° prodilometry: new techniques for display and acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2760–2769 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Srinivasan, V.

Strand, T. C.

T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Su, X. Y.

W. Zhou, X. Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Cheng, X. Y. Su, L. R. Guo, “Automated measurement method for 360° profilometry of diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1274–1278 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Su, W. Zhou, “Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 355–357 (1990).

Suzuki, M.

Takeda, M.

Valkenburg, R. J.

R. J. Valkenburg, A. M. Mclor, “Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system,” Image Vision Comput. 16, 99–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

A. Asundi, W. Zhou, “Mapping algorithm for 360-deg profilometry with time delayed and integration imaging,” Opt. Eng. 38, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, X. Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Su, W. Zhou, “Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 355–357 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. (1)

P. Saint-Marc, J. L. Jezouin, G. Medioni, “A versatile PC-based range-finding system,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 7(2), 250–256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Image Vision Comput. (1)

R. J. Valkenburg, A. M. Mclor, “Accurate 3D measurement using a structured light system,” Image Vision Comput. 16, 99–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. Zhou, X. Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

A. Asundi, C. S. Chan, M. R. Sajan, “360° prodilometry: new techniques for display and acquisition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2760–2769 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Strand, “Optical three-dimensional sensing for machine vision,” Opt. Eng. 24, 33–40 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Asundi, W. Zhou, “Mapping algorithm for 360-deg profilometry with time delayed and integration imaging,” Opt. Eng. 38, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

X. Y. Su, W. Zhou, “Algorithm for the generation of look-up range table in 3-D sensing,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical Inspection, C. P. Grover, ed., Proc. SPIE1332, 355–357 (1990).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the unified triangular profilometry: (a) projection ray tracing, (b) image ray tracing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for spot inspection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration of the spot inspection: (a) sampling data at different distances, (b) linear mapping relationship.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile measurement of a shoe: (a), (b) section displays, (c), (d) 3-D displays of the shoe from two viewpoints.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for single-line system under (a) nonpulsed light illumination, (b) pulsed light illumination.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calibration of single-line system: (a) phase distribution, (b) linear distribution, (c) linear distribution after the exclusion of some points near r 0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profile measurement of a dented can: (a) fringe pattern of the dented can recorded by a TDI camera, (b) 3-D mesh surface of the dented can.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Setup for the projection-grating system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Linear distribution in the projection-grating system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reconstructed 3D surface of a mannequin head from two viewpoints.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BI2BA=BI2BA,  l-h cos αh sin α=l+n-n0cos βn-n0sin β,
1h=a+bn-n0,
a=sin αcot α+cot βl,  b=l sin αl sin β.
xi=1h,  yi=1n-n0.
yi=a+bxi.
a=0.0034,  b=1.0146,  r=0.9999.
a=0.0101,  b=-0.3802,  r=-0.9983.

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