Abstract

The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer has recently been developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to meet the significant metrology challenge of characterizing extreme ultraviolet projection lithography systems. Here we present a refined version of this interferometer that overcomes the original design’s susceptibility to noise attributed to scattered light. The theory of the new hybrid spatial- and temporal-domain (dual-domain) point diffraction interferometer is described in detail and experimental results are presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.
  19. R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction methods raise interferometer accuracy,” Laser Focus World 32, 61–71 (1996).

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1982 (1)

1975 (1)

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 351–356 (1975).

1974 (1)

1969 (1)

R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).

1966 (1)

P. Carre, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectric et interferential du bureau international des poids et mesures,” Metrologia 2, 13–17 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).

Attwood, D.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, K. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bjorkholm, J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bokor, J.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, J. Bokor, “A 3-D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiac, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 133–137.

Brangaccio, D. J.

Bresloff, C.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Bruning, J. H.

Carre, P.

P. Carre, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectric et interferential du bureau international des poids et mesures,” Metrologia 2, 13–17 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N.

Cerrina, F.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Chow, W. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Crane, R.

R. Crane, “Interference phase measurement,” Appl. Opt. 8, 538–542 (1969).

Denham, P. E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dilworth, D.

Freeman, R. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Gallagher, J. E.

Goldberg, K. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, J. Bokor, “A 3-D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiac, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 133–137.

Gullikson, E.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Herriot, D. R.

Himel, M. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Ina, H.

Jackson, K.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K. H.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Jin, P. S.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Kobayashi, S.

Koike, M.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

LaFontaine, B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E.

Linnik, W.

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).

Lopez, J.

MacDowell, A. A.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Malinowski, M. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Masri, R.

Medecki, H.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

Nissen, R. P.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Rudd, J.

Schmitt, R. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 351–356 (1975).

Sommargren, G.

Sommargren, G. E.

G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction methods raise interferometer accuracy,” Laser Focus World 32, 61–71 (1996).

G. E. Sommargren, “Phase shifting diffraction interferometry for measuring extreme ultraviolet optics,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 108–112.

Spector, S. J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spence, P. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 351–356 (1975).

Stulen, R. H.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Sweat, W. C.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Takeda, M.

Tan, Z.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tejnil, E.

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, J. Bokor, “A 3-D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiac, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 133–137.

Tennant, D.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Tichenor, D. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Underwood, J.

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

White, A. D.

White, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Wilkerson, G. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Williamson, D. M.

D. M. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. Attwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 68–76.

Windt, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Wood, O. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, A. A. MacDowell, J. Bokor, D. Attwood, “At-wavelength interferometry for EUV lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2455–2461 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. N. Smartt, W. H. Steel, “Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 Suppl. 14-1, 351–356 (1975).

Laser Focus World (1)

G. E. Sommargren, “Diffraction methods raise interferometer accuracy,” Laser Focus World 32, 61–71 (1996).

Metrologia (1)

P. Carre, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectric et interferential du bureau international des poids et mesures,” Metrologia 2, 13–17 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR (1)

W. Linnik, “A simple interferometer to test optical systems,” Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 210–212 (1933).

Other (7)

D. M. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. Attwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 68–76.

G. E. Sommargren, “Phase shifting diffraction interferometry for measuring extreme ultraviolet optics,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiak, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 108–112.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. Lee, C. Chang, C. Bresloff, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Characterization of the accuracy of EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 114–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, J. Bokor, “A 3-D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G. D. Kubiac, D. R. Kania, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 133–137.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, R. L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, L. A. Brown, P. A. Spence, P. S. Jin, W. C. Sweat, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, T. E. Jewell, “Development and characterization of a 10× Schwarzschild system for SXPL,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. M. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceeding Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 79–82.

R. Beguiristain, J. Underwood, M. Koike, P. Batson, E. Gullikson, K. Jackson, H. Medecki, D. Attwood, “High flux undulator beam line optics for EUV interferometry and photoemission microscopy,” in High Heat Flux Engineering III, A. M. Khounsary, ed., Proc. SPIE2855, 159–169 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PSPDI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial spectrum of (a) the field in the recording plane and (b) the recorded irradiance for the standard PSPDI mask case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial spectrum of (a) the field in the recording plane and (b) the recorded irradiance for the spatial-analysis-optimized PSPDI mask case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectrum of field at detector plane with standard PSPDI mask. The test beam is now comprised of a narrow central lobe and low-level scatter. (b) On-axis components of the detected irradiance spectrum. The y-axis scale is greatly exaggerated to show features. Also, the scaling is different for each component. The first component is the autocorrelation of the test beam. The second component is the cross correlation of the test beam and the scattered reference light. Finally, the third component is the autocorrelation of the scattered reference light. The dual-domain analysis method, applied to the standard PSPDI configuration, is capable of eliminating all scattered reference light noise except the phase-shifting baseband noise appearing in the signal passband.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the dual-domain analysis optimized mask with a window size of 3 µm and pinhole-to-window center separation of 4.5 µm. (b) Log-scale image of the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the recorded intensity pattern when using the optimized mask.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wave front obtained (a) using the standard temporal processing (phase-shifting) technique and (b) using the dual-domain method. The same source data were used in both cases. The blanked-out regions of the wave front are areas where the test optic reflectance was too low to accurately measure the phase. The high-frequency features in (a) can be attributed to the baseband noise, which is not suppressed by conventional phase-shifting analysis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Demonstration of the dual-domain analysis method applied to the standard PSPDI mask case. (a) Standard time-domain analysis and (b) dual-domain analysis with 200-nm reference pinhole. (c) Standard time-domain analysis with 100-nm reference pinhole, where scattered reference light noise is causing phase-retrieval errors. (d) Dual-domain analysis method with 100-nm reference pinhole.

Equations (14)

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Urfx=Aδfx-fc+rectfxWnfx,
Utfx=rectfxWSfx,
Ufx=Aδfx-fc+rectfxWnfx+Sfx.
1 Signal: rectfx-fcWSfx-fc.
2 Baseband noise: rectfxWnfxrectfxWSfx,
3 Passband noise: rectfx-fcWnfx-fc.
first order=rectfx-fcWnfx-fc+Sfx-fc,
zero order=δfx+ΓrectfxWnfx+Sfx.
Ufx, ν=Aδfx-fc, ν-νc+rectfxW×nfxδν-νc+Sfxδν.
first order=rectfx-fcWSfx-fc+rectfxWnfxrectfxWSfx×δν-νc,
zero order=ΓrectfxWnfx+ΓrectfxWSfx+rectfx-fcWnfx-fc+δfxδν.
rectfx-fcWSfx-fc,
lfx, ν=rectfx-fcWnfx-fcδν+Sfx-fcδν-νc+rectfx+fcW×n*fx+fcδν+S*fx+fcδν-νc,
It=Nx0+|sx0|cos2πνct+ϕsx0,

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