Abstract

A new scheme for phase control of optical components with laser ablation has been developed. One can ablate the surface shape of optical plastic material coated on a glass plate by using 193-nm laser light to control the transmission wave front. The surface shape is monitored in situ and corrected to attain the desired aberration level. The irradiation fluence is approximately 40 mJ/cm2, and the ablation depth/pulse is approximately 0.01 µm/pulse for UV-cured resin. A wave-front aberration of 3.0 λ is reduced to 0.17 λ for flat surface shaping. For spherical surface generation, an aberration of 2.5 λ is reduced to 0.2 λ. The increase in surface roughness is kept within acceptable levels.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).
  2. G. Beadie, S. D. Vartak, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, “Microlenses and microlens arrays fabricated by laser heating of semiconductor-doped glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK6, p. 135.
  3. H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in calcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Giant photoexpansion in AS2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2925–2927 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Wang, J. R. Leger, R. H. Rediker, “Rapid fabrication of diffractive optical elements by use of image-based excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4660–4665 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. P. Behrmann, M. T. Duignan, “Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4666–4674 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.
  8. T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.
  9. R. Srinivasan, B. Braren, R. W. Dreyfus, L. Hadel, D. E. Seeger, “Mechanism of the ultraviolet laser ablation of polymethyl methacrylate at 193 and 248 nm: laser-induced fluorescence analysis, chemical analysis, and doping studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 785–791 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. T. Lin, “Critical review on refractive surgical lasers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 668–675 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Sutcliffe, R. Srinivasan, “Dynamics of UV laser ablation of organic polymer surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3315–3322 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. P. van Saarloos, I. J. Constable, “Quantitative measurement of the ablation rate of poly (methyl methacrylate) with 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 377–379 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (3)

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in calcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Lin, “Critical review on refractive surgical lasers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 668–675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Giant photoexpansion in AS2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2925–2927 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. P. van Saarloos, I. J. Constable, “Quantitative measurement of the ablation rate of poly (methyl methacrylate) with 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 377–379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

Beadie, G.

G. Beadie, S. D. Vartak, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, “Microlenses and microlens arrays fabricated by laser heating of semiconductor-doped glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK6, p. 135.

Behrmann, G. P.

Berns, M. W.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Braren, B.

Constable, I. J.

P. P. van Saarloos, I. J. Constable, “Quantitative measurement of the ablation rate of poly (methyl methacrylate) with 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 377–379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dreyfus, R. W.

Duignan, M. T.

Gailitis, R. P.

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hadel, L.

Hill, R. A.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hisakuni, H.

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in calcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Giant photoexpansion in AS2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2925–2927 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jitsuno, T.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

Keates, R. H.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kranenberg, C. F.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

Kyung, J. H.

G. Beadie, S. D. Vartak, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, “Microlenses and microlens arrays fabricated by laser heating of semiconductor-doped glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK6, p. 135.

Lawandy, N. M.

G. Beadie, S. D. Vartak, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, “Microlenses and microlens arrays fabricated by laser heating of semiconductor-doped glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK6, p. 135.

Leger, J. R.

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin, “Critical review on refractive surgical lasers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 668–675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. M.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

McGready, D. E.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

McNeil, J. R.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

Nakai, S.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

Nakashima, N.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

Nishi, N.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

Rediker, R. H.

Reicher, D. W.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

Ren, Q.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, D. E.

Srinivasan, R.

Sutcliffe, E.

E. Sutcliffe, R. Srinivasan, “Dynamics of UV laser ablation of organic polymer surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3315–3322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Takigawa, Y.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

Tanaka, K.

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in calcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Giant photoexpansion in AS2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2925–2927 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K. P.

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tokumura, K.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

van Saarloos, P. P.

P. P. van Saarloos, I. J. Constable, “Quantitative measurement of the ablation rate of poly (methyl methacrylate) with 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 377–379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vartak, S. D.

G. Beadie, S. D. Vartak, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, “Microlenses and microlens arrays fabricated by laser heating of semiconductor-doped glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK6, p. 135.

Wang, X.

White, P. L.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

Wilson, S. R.

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, “Giant photoexpansion in AS2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2925–2927 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Ren, R. P. Gailitis, K. P. Thompson, J. T. Lin, “Ablation of the cornea and synthetic polymers using a UV (213 nm) solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2284–2287 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Sutcliffe, R. Srinivasan, “Dynamics of UV laser ablation of organic polymer surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3315–3322 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. P. van Saarloos, I. J. Constable, “Quantitative measurement of the ablation rate of poly (methyl methacrylate) with 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 377–379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Lin, “Critical review on refractive surgical lasers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 668–675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

S. R. Wilson, D. W. Reicher, C. F. Kranenberg, J. R. McNeil, P. L. White, P. M. Martin, D. E. McGready, “Ion beam milling of fused silica for window fabrication,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 82–86 (1990).

G. Beadie, S. D. Vartak, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, “Microlenses and microlens arrays fabricated by laser heating of semiconductor-doped glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK6, p. 135.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of precise optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CTuK3, pp. 132–133.

T. Jitsuno, K. Tokumura, N. Nishi, Y. Takigawa, N. Nakashima, M. Nakatsuka, S. Nakai, “UV laser ablative figuring of plastic surface for precise optics,” in Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, IEEE catalog 95TH8014 (IEEE Service Center, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, N.J. 08855-1331, 1995), paper FH4, p. 188.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser ablative figuring system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured ablation rate versus irradiation fluence for PMMA and UV-cured resin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured ablation rate versus fluence for scanned irradiation with UV-cured resin; the surface was scanned in increments of 0.8 mm in the XY direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of surface roughness on fluence with UV-cured resin. The surface was scanned in increments of 0.8 mm in the XY direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface map of the UV-cured resin: (a) original surface and (b) after ablation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission interferogram of original and ablated surfaces (λ = 632.8 nm). (a) Flat surface and (b) spherical surface generation. The material was UV-cured resin. The surface was scanned in increments of 0.36 mm in the XY direction; the laser fluence was 45 mJ/cm2.

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