Abstract

A new method for the determination of ray paths as well as resulting path segments and partial gas columns within a layered atmosphere is presented. Any singularity at the tangent point is avoided. No use is made of the gross spherical symmetry of the Earth’s atmosphere. Using this approach we examine the impact of the Earth’s oblate shape and horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities on infrared limb spectra.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. I. Mahan, “Astronomical refraction—some history and theories,” Appl. Opt. 1, 497–511 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. E. Snider, “Refractive effects in remote sensing of the atmosphere with infrared transmission spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 2178–2184 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.
  4. T. von Clarmann, “Untersuchungen zur Strahldichteberechnung mit Linie-für-Linie-Computerprogramm,” Diploma Thesis (Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, München, Germany, 1986).
  5. T. von Clarmann, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimafosschung, Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany (private communication, 1998).
  6. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 121–123.
  7. D. A. Thompson, T. J. Pepin, F. W. Simon, “Ray tracing in a refracting spherically symmetric atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1498–1501 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.
  9. D. P. Edwards, “Atmospheric transmittance and radiance calculations using line-by-line computer models,” in Modeling of the Atmosphere, L. S. Rothman, ed., Proc. SPIE928, 94–116 (1988).
  10. L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).
  12. S. Syndergaard, “Modeling the impact of the Earth’s oblateness on the retrieval of temperature and pressure profiles from limb sounding,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 60, 171–180 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Syndergaard, “Modeling the impact of the Earth’s oblateness on the retrieval of temperature and pressure profiles from limb sounding,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 60, 171–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1975 (1)

D. E. Snider, “Refractive effects in remote sensing of the atmosphere with infrared transmission spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 2178–2184 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Adrian, G. P.

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 121–123.

Carli, B.

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Chu, D. A.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Dinelli, B. M.

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Dudhia, A.

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Echle, G.

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

D. P. Edwards, “Atmospheric transmittance and radiance calculations using line-by-line computer models,” in Modeling of the Atmosphere, L. S. Rothman, ed., Proc. SPIE928, 94–116 (1988).

Fischer, H.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friedl-Vallon, F.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Funke, B.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glatthor, N.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hase, F.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Höpfner, M.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kemnitzer, H.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Kuntz, M.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mahan, A. I.

Marshall, B. T.

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maucher, G.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

Pepin, T. J.

Raspollini, P.

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Ridolfi, M.

B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

Seefeldner, M.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Simon, F. W.

Snider, D. E.

D. E. Snider, “Refractive effects in remote sensing of the atmosphere with infrared transmission spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 2178–2184 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Syndergaard, S.

S. Syndergaard, “Modeling the impact of the Earth’s oblateness on the retrieval of temperature and pressure profiles from limb sounding,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 60, 171–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. A.

Trieschmann, O.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, “Untersuchungen zur Strahldichteberechnung mit Linie-für-Linie-Computerprogramm,” Diploma Thesis (Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, München, Germany, 1986).

T. von Clarmann, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimafosschung, Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany (private communication, 1998).

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

Wetzel, G.

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 121–123.

Zorn, S.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

D. E. Snider, “Refractive effects in remote sensing of the atmosphere with infrared transmission spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 2178–2184 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. (1)

S. Syndergaard, “Modeling the impact of the Earth’s oblateness on the retrieval of temperature and pressure profiles from limb sounding,” J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 60, 171–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, “Vertical profiles of N2O5, HO2NO2, and NO2 inside the Arctic vortex, retrieved from nocturnal MIPAS-B2 infrared limb emission measurements in February 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19,177–19,186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. L. Gordley, B. T. Marshall, D. A. Chu, “linepak: Algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 563–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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B. Carli, M. Ridolfi, P. Raspollini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, “Study of the retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1998).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascode2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

D. P. Edwards, “Atmospheric transmittance and radiance calculations using line-by-line computer models,” in Modeling of the Atmosphere, L. S. Rothman, ed., Proc. SPIE928, 94–116 (1988).

G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Trace gas measurements with the ground-based MIPAS experiment during the arctic winters 1990 to 1992,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1993), pp. 359–362.

T. von Clarmann, “Untersuchungen zur Strahldichteberechnung mit Linie-für-Linie-Computerprogramm,” Diploma Thesis (Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, München, Germany, 1986).

T. von Clarmann, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimafosschung, Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany (private communication, 1998).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), pp. 121–123.

G. P. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, H. Fischer, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: I. Requirements, justification and model error estimation,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 257–268 (1998);M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, M. Kuntz, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: II. Interface to retrieval applications,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 186–195 (1998); M. Kuntz, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, H. Kemnitzer, S. Zorn, “Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm: III. ADDLIN and TRANSF algorithms for modeling spectral transmittance and radiance,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds, J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, Z. Guan, eds., Proc. SPIE3501, 247–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Method of tangential displacement. Construction of the new tangent vector e tn is shown. Substitution of the smoothly bent ray path by straight segments is the discretization error of the method and can be made negligible by use of an appropriate integration method and sufficiently small ds.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Consequences of ellipsoidal Earth shape and horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities on limb spectra in the CO2 laser band region according to the KOPRA calculations. The spectrum assumes a gradient-free and spherical symmetric situation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 except that each panel shows the differences between pairs of limb spectra. For details see the text.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relative Azimuthal Variation of Air Mass and Refractive Angle along a Ray Starting Tangentially at a Height of 10 km and 50° Na

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n1 sinα1=n2 sinα2,
const=nrr sinαr,
dα=ds|es·n|/n,
eta=net+dsn/|net+dsn|.
es·eta=dses·n/|net+dsn|.
ri+1=ri+0.5dset,i+et,i+1,
et,i+1=et,inri+dsnri+0.5dset,i|et,inri+dsnri+0.5dset,i|.
r=ri+ri+1-rihri-Hj/hri-hri+1,

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