Abstract

A pseudoanalog true-time-delay (TTD) module based on substrate-guided waves and wavelength-division multiplexing is presented. A 1-to-32 (5-bit) even fan-out is demonstrated by use of a two-dimensional waveguide hologram array. This module has a packing density of 2.5 lines/cm2 and very compact packaging (8 cm × 4 cm × 8 mm). It also reduces TTD system complexity by providing continuously tuned delay signals to parallel-control the whole phased-array antenna system. The device has a measured bandwidth of as high as 2.4 THz. The delay signal can range from tens of picoseconds to several nanoseconds.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).
  6. K. Kang, K. Deng, S. Koehler, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, “Fabrication of precision fiber-optic time delays with in situ monitoring for subpicosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2533–2536 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).
  8. G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Ng, R. Loo, V. Jones, J. Lewis, “Silica-waveguide optical time-shift network for steering a 96-element L-band conformal array,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications III, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE2560, 140–147 (1995).
  12. W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.
  13. L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 194–204 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Goutzoulis, D. Davies, J. Zomp, “Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2312–2322 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. Huignard, D. Philippet, P. Granger, “Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5293–5300 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Frigyes, A. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Li, Z. Fu, R. Chen, “High packing density 2.5 THz true-time-delay lines using spatially multiplexed substrate guided waves in conjunction with volume holograms on a single substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2253–2258 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Fu, R. Li, R. Chen, “Compact broadband 5-bit photonic true-time-delay module for phased array antennas,” Opt. Lett. 23, 522–524 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Fu, R. Chen, “Five-bit substrate guided wave true-time delay module working at up to 2.4 THz with a packing density of 2.5 lines/cm2 for phased array antenna applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1838–1844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

Z. Fu, R. Chen, “Five-bit substrate guided wave true-time delay module working at up to 2.4 THz with a packing density of 2.5 lines/cm2 for phased array antenna applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1838–1844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fu, R. Li, R. Chen, “Compact broadband 5-bit photonic true-time-delay module for phased array antennas,” Opt. Lett. 23, 522–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Kang, K. Deng, S. Koehler, I. Glesk, P. Prucnal, “Fabrication of precision fiber-optic time delays with in situ monitoring for subpicosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2533–2536 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Li, Z. Fu, R. Chen, “High packing density 2.5 THz true-time-delay lines using spatially multiplexed substrate guided waves in conjunction with volume holograms on a single substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2253–2258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trink, B. Jalali, “Recirculating photonic filter: a wavelength-selective time delay for phased-array antennas and wavelength code-division multiple access,” Opt. Lett. 21, 740–742 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. Huignard, D. Philippet, P. Granger, “Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5293–5300 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Frigyes, A. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Goutzoulis, D. Davies, J. Zomp, “Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2312–2322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “Optical dispersion technique for time-delay beam steering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7395–7397 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

1991

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

Andres, M. V.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, J.

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, N.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. I. R.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Z. Fu, R. Li, R. Chen, “Compact broadband 5-bit photonic true-time-delay module for phased array antennas,” Opt. Lett. 23, 522–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fu, R. Chen, “Five-bit substrate guided wave true-time delay module working at up to 2.4 THz with a packing density of 2.5 lines/cm2 for phased array antenna applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1838–1844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, R. Chen, “High packing density 2.5 THz true-time-delay lines using spatially multiplexed substrate guided waves in conjunction with volume holograms on a single substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2253–2258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D.

A. Goutzoulis, D. Davies, J. Zomp, “Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2312–2322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dempewolf, P.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, K.

Dexter, J.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Dong, L.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dubinovsky, M.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Espiau, F. M.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feinleib, R. E.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 194–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frigyes, I.

I. Frigyes, A. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

Z. Fu, R. Li, R. Chen, “Compact broadband 5-bit photonic true-time-delay module for phased array antennas,” Opt. Lett. 23, 522–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fu, R. Chen, “Five-bit substrate guided wave true-time delay module working at up to 2.4 THz with a packing density of 2.5 lines/cm2 for phased array antenna applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1838–1844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, R. Chen, “High packing density 2.5 THz true-time-delay lines using spatially multiplexed substrate guided waves in conjunction with volume holograms on a single substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2253–2258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gesell, L. H.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 194–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gimeno, B.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

Goldberg, L.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goutzoulis, A.

A. Goutzoulis, D. Davies, J. Zomp, “Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2312–2322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Granger, P.

Hayes, R.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.

Huignard, J.

Jalali, B.

Joffre, P.

Jones, V.

W. Ng, R. Loo, V. Jones, J. Lewis, “Silica-waveguide optical time-shift network for steering a 96-element L-band conformal array,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications III, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE2560, 140–147 (1995).

Jones, V. L.

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

Kang, K.

Kasemset, D.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

Kelly, J. R.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knittel, G. H.

A. A. Oliner, G. H. Knittel, Phased Array Antennas (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1972).

Koehler, S.

Lafuse, J. L.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 194–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J.

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

W. Ng, R. Loo, V. Jones, J. Lewis, “Silica-waveguide optical time-shift network for steering a 96-element L-band conformal array,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications III, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE2560, 140–147 (1995).

Li, R.

Z. Fu, R. Li, R. Chen, “Compact broadband 5-bit photonic true-time-delay module for phased array antennas,” Opt. Lett. 23, 522–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, R. Chen, “High packing density 2.5 THz true-time-delay lines using spatially multiplexed substrate guided waves in conjunction with volume holograms on a single substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2253–2258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R.

W. Ng, R. Loo, V. Jones, J. Lewis, “Silica-waveguide optical time-shift network for steering a 96-element L-band conformal array,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications III, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE2560, 140–147 (1995).

Loo, R. Y.

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

Mailloux, R. J.

R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1993).

Mather, A.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Minford, W.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, A.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.

Newberg, I. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Ng, R. Loo, V. Jones, J. Lewis, “Silica-waveguide optical time-shift network for steering a 96-element L-band conformal array,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications III, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE2560, 140–147 (1995).

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.

Oliner, A. A.

A. A. Oliner, G. H. Knittel, Phased Array Antennas (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1972).

Ortega, B.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parent, M.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paster, D.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Philippet, D.

Plant, D. V.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P.

Scott, D. C.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A.

I. Frigyes, A. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Steier, W. H.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stilwell, D.

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G. L.

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thorsten, N.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

Tong, D. T. K.

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toughlian, E. N.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspect of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Trink, P. D.

Turpin, T. M.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 194–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walston, A.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.

Walston, A. A.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wanuga, S.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

Watson, J.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

Wu, M.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yap, D.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yen, H. W.

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspect of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Zomp, J.

A. Goutzoulis, D. Davies, J. Zomp, “Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2312–2322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, R. T. Chen, B. Davies, “Dispersion correction of surface-normal optical interconnection using two compensated holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3249–3251 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. V. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Paster, J. Capmany, L. Dong, “Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33, 545–546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Loo, G. L. Tangonan, H. W. Yen, J. J. Lee, V. L. Jones, J. Lewis, “5 bit photonic time shifter for wideband arrays,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1521–1522 (1996).

IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

I. Frigyes, A. Seeds, “Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378–2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, J. Watson, “Integrated 6-bit photonic true-time-delay unit for lightweight 3–6 GHz radar beamformer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 6, 681–684 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, R. Chen, “High packing density 2.5 THz true-time-delay lines using spatially multiplexed substrate guided waves in conjunction with volume holograms on a single substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2253–2258 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Z. Fu, R. Chen, “Five-bit substrate guided wave true-time delay module working at up to 2.4 THz with a packing density of 2.5 lines/cm2 for phased array antenna applications,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1838–1844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Goutzoulis, D. Davies, J. Zomp, “Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2312–2322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Zhou, Z. Fu, M. Dubinovsky, J. I. R. Chen, P. Dempewolf, “Dispersion enhanced wavelength division multiplexing,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE3005, 144–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oliner, G. H. Knittel, Phased Array Antennas (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1972).

R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1993).

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspect of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

W. Ng, R. Loo, V. Jones, J. Lewis, “Silica-waveguide optical time-shift network for steering a 96-element L-band conformal array,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications III, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE2560, 140–147 (1995).

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, A. Walston, R. Hayes, “Detector-switched GaAs monolithic time-delay network for the optical control of phased arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1993), pp. 211–212.

L. H. Gesell, R. E. Feinleib, J. L. Lafuse, T. M. Turpin, “Acousto-optic control of time delays for array beam steering,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 194–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the structure of 5-bit TTD lines based on a substrate-guided mode with holographic-grating couplers. OEIC, optoelectronic integrated circuit; GRIN, graded index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Substrate-guided-wave optical TTD line with a surface-normal configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One 5-bit TTD module that controls one PAA with five subarrays.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of a surface-normal holographic-grating coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dispersion spot of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. (b) Experimental dispersion data for a thick holographic grating.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Structure of wavelength-multiplexed TTD lines.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Photograph of the packaged 5-bit TTD module. Scale in inches. (b) Thirty-two fan-outs from the TTD modules.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Spectrum diagram of the sampled wavelengths. (b) Two-dimensional plot of the fan-out spots after eight bounces under different wavelengths. (c) Three-dimensional plot of the fan-out spots after eight bounces under different wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Far-field patterns of a PAA with 128 elements under different operating wavelengths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scanning Angles and the Corresponding Delays of Each Subarray

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2k sinα+θ2=K,
Δθ=Δλλtan θ.
Λsin ϕsin α+sin θ=λn.
Δτ=2hncos θC,
Δτ=2hn sin θcos2 θC Δθ=2hn sin θcos2 θCΔλλtan θ2hncos θCΔλλ=Δτ Δλλ.
τm=mΔτ,
Δτm=mΔτ Δλλ=mΔτ.
τm=mΔτΔλλ+1.
τm-Δτm=τm-1+Δτm-1,
mΔτ-mΔτ Δλλ=m-1Δτ+m-1Δτ Δλλ.
Δλλ=12m-1.
L=2h tan θ.
ΔL=d2 tan θdλ Δλ=2h sin θcos3 θ * Δλλ.
ΔLΔλ=0.107 mm/nm,

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