Abstract

Low-loss mirrors fabricated by ion-beam-sputtering machines for possible application in an interferometric gravitational wave antenna were evaluated by use of Nd:YAG laser light (λ = 1064 nm) with two distinct measurements: a tabletop experiment that used a short cavity with a small beam with a beam waist of approximately 2w 0 = 0.82 mm, and an optical test that used a 20-m prototypical gravitational-wave detector with a large beam with a beam waist of approximately 2w 0 = 4.4 mm. A multilayer coating comprised 29 layers of SiO2/Ta2O5 and one protective coating of SiO2. The best values obtained as a result of these measurements were 16 ppm (parts in 106) and 30 ppm in total loss, respectively. Also, a two-dimensional loss map generated by use of a small beam successfully revealed the existence of a loss structure within the coating surface. These results imply that a high-reflectance multilayer coating has some inhomogeneities and a loss distribution with a typical scale of a few millimeters and that the total measured losses depend on the beam spot size.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. P. Drever, “Interferometric detectors for gravitational radiation,” in Gravitation Radiation (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–338.
  3. N. Uehara, K. Ueda, “Accurate measurement of ultra low loss in a high finesse Fabry–Perot interferometer using the frequency response function,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 9–15 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Z. Anderson, J. C. Frisch, C. S. Masser, “Mirror reflectometer based on optical cavity decay time,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1238–1245 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Araya, N. Mio, K. Tsubono, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Optical mode cleaner with suspended mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1446–1453 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.
  9. S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, “Accurate measurement of ultra low loss in a high finesse Fabry–Perot interferometer using the frequency response function,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 9–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, N. Z.

Araya, A.

A. Araya, N. Mio, K. Tsubono, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Optical mode cleaner with suspended mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1446–1453 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Billing, H.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, “Interferometric detectors for gravitational radiation,” in Gravitation Radiation (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–338.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, J. C.

Fujimoto, M.-K.

S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Araya, N. Mio, K. Tsubono, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Optical mode cleaner with suspended mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1446–1453 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Fukushima, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, I.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitajima, N.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maischberger, K.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Masser, C. S.

Mio, N.

Mitake, T.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, O.

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Miyoki, S.

S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Munleyand, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Araya, N. Mio, K. Tsubono, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Optical mode cleaner with suspended mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1446–1453 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Rüdiger, A.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Schilling, R.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schunupp, L.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, H.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suehiro, K.

A. Araya, N. Mio, K. Tsubono, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Optical mode cleaner with suspended mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1446–1453 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Takahashi, R.

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Telada, S.

A. Araya, N. Mio, K. Tsubono, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Optical mode cleaner with suspended mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1446–1453 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Tsubono, K.

Uchisawa, K.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, A.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, “Accurate measurement of ultra low loss in a high finesse Fabry–Perot interferometer using the frequency response function,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 9–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, N.

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, “Accurate measurement of ultra low loss in a high finesse Fabry–Perot interferometer using the frequency response function,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 9–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munleyand, H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Uehara, K. Ueda, “Accurate measurement of ultra low loss in a high finesse Fabry–Perot interferometer using the frequency response function,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 9–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta. (1)

A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, L. Schunupp, W. Winkler, H. Billing, K. Maischberger, “A mode selector to suppress fluctuations in laser beam geometry,” Opt. Acta. 28, 641–658 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (2)

A. Ueda, N. Uehara, K. Uchisawa, K. Ueda, H. Sekiguchi, T. Mitake, K. Nakamura, N. Kitajima, I. Kataoka, “Ultra-high quality cavity with 1.5 ppm loss at 1064 nm,” Opt. Rev. 5, 369–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyoki, S. Sato, M. Ohashi, M.-K. Fujimoto, “Techniques to estimate the reflectance of a high-reflectance dielectric multilayer coating mirror using incident beam angular dependencies of its transmittance,” Opt. Rev. 5, 17–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. W. P. Drever, “Interferometric detectors for gravitational radiation,” in Gravitation Radiation (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–338.

M. Ohashi, K. Suehiro, S. Telada, S. Sato, M.-K. Fujimoto, R. Takahashi, S. Miyoki, T. Yamazaki, M. Fukushima, A. Araya, O. Miyakawa, “Current status of 20-m prototype,” in Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 147–154.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of the tabletop experiment. FFT, fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration of the 20-m baseline laser interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude gain and phase of the frequency-response function obtained in the tabletop experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitude gain and phase of the frequency-response function obtained with a loss measurement for the 20-m interferometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loss distribution within a coating surface. The several high peaks are due to pointlike defects.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of the Total-Loss Measurements

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ηT=T1-R2=TT+A2=11+A/T2,
ηR=AR1-R2AT+A2=A/T1+A/T2.
=πR1-R.
γ=1πcos-1g1g2,
|Hf|=ηT11+f/fc21/2,
arg Hf=-tan-1f/fc,

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