Abstract

The manufacture and testing of high-precision optical surfaces for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory is described. Through the use of carefully shaped polishing laps made of a nondeformable polymer material coated on a rigid base, surfaces 250 mm in diameter with radii of curvature between 7 and 15 km were polished to an accuracy of several hundred meters in the curvature and with low values of waviness and microroughness. Metrology instrumentation used to measure the optical finish included a large-aperture digital interferometer calibrated to nanometer-level accuracy for measurements of curvature, astigmatism, and waviness and an interference microscope for measurements of microroughness. The power spectra of the data from both instruments were in good agreement.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Caronthe VIRGO group, “The VIRGO interferometer for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Phys. B 54B, 167–175 (1997).
  3. D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Ju, D. G. Blair, “The detection of gravitational waves,” Int. J. Modern Phys. D 5, 101–150 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Spero, S. E. Whitcomb, “The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project,” Opt. Photon. News 6(7), 35–39 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.
  7. A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1997

B. Caronthe VIRGO group, “The VIRGO interferometer for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Phys. B 54B, 167–175 (1997).

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. Ju, D. G. Blair, “The detection of gravitational waves,” Int. J. Modern Phys. D 5, 101–150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Optical flat surfaces: direct interferometric measurement of small scale surface irregularities,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3265–3266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harvey, K. L. Lewotsky, A. Kotha, “Performance predictions of a Schwarzschild imaging microscope for soft x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2423–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Calculation of the power spectral density from surface profile data,” Appl. Opt. 34, 201–208 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Spero, S. E. Whitcomb, “The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project,” Opt. Photon. News 6(7), 35–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Vanherck, K. U. Leuven, “STC’S’ co-operative work on phase correct Gaussian filtering in surface roughness measurement,” Ann. CIRP (Coop. Inst. Res. Program) 43, 599–601 (1994).

1992

A. J. Leistner, E. G. Thwaite, F. Lesha, J. M. Bennett, “Polishing study using Teflon and pitch laps to produce flat and supersmooth surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1472–1482 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Larkin, B. F. Oreb, “Design and assessment of symmetrical phase shifting algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1740–1748 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. C. Wyant, “Absolute optical testing: better accuracy than the reference,” Photon. Spectra 25(3), 97–101 (1991).

1988

1976

1975

P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14, 257–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Althouse, W.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, J. M.

Billingsley, G.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Blair, D. G.

L. Ju, D. G. Blair, “The detection of gravitational waves,” Int. J. Modern Phys. D 5, 101–150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bochner, B.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Caron, B.

B. Caronthe VIRGO group, “The VIRGO interferometer for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Phys. B 54B, 167–175 (1997).

Carri, J.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Church, E. L.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Error sources in phase measuring interferometry,” in Intl Symp on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 428–435 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, J. M.

Fairman, P. S.

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Farrant, D. I.

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

D. I. Farrant, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, M. A. Suchting, C. J. Walsh, “Metrology of LIGO Pathfinder optics,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 74–79 (1996).

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

Freund, C. H.

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Gilliand, Y.

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Golovitser, A.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Gursel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, “Optical flat surfaces: direct interferometric measurement of small scale surface irregularities,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3265–3266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14, 257–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey, K. L. Lewotsky, A. Kotha, “Performance predictions of a Schwarzschild imaging microscope for soft x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2423–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hefetz, Y.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Heinzel, G.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horne, D. F.

D. F. Horne, Optical Polishing Technology (Hilger, London, 1972), Chap. 4.

Jenkins, G. M.

G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral Analysis and its Applications (Holden-Day, San Francisco, Calif., 1969).

Ju, L.

L. Ju, D. G. Blair, “The detection of gravitational waves,” Int. J. Modern Phys. D 5, 101–150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jungwirth, D.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kells, W.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Kotha, A.

J. E. Harvey, K. L. Lewotsky, A. Kotha, “Performance predictions of a Schwarzschild imaging microscope for soft x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2423–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, K. G.

Leistner, A. J.

A. J. Leistner, E. G. Thwaite, F. Lesha, J. M. Bennett, “Polishing study using Teflon and pitch laps to produce flat and supersmooth surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1472–1482 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Leistner, “Teflon polishers: their manufacture and use,” Appl. Opt. 8, 293–298 (1976).

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

D. I. Farrant, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, M. A. Suchting, C. J. Walsh, “Metrology of LIGO Pathfinder optics,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 74–79 (1996).

C. J. Walsh, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, “Power spectral density analysis of LIGO substrates” (submitted to Appl. Opt.1999).

Lesha, F.

Leuven, K. U.

P. Vanherck, K. U. Leuven, “STC’S’ co-operative work on phase correct Gaussian filtering in surface roughness measurement,” Ann. CIRP (Coop. Inst. Res. Program) 43, 599–601 (1994).

Lewotsky, K. L.

J. E. Harvey, K. L. Lewotsky, A. Kotha, “Performance predictions of a Schwarzschild imaging microscope for soft x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2423–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luck, H.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mattson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), Chap. 4.

Mizuno, J.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oreb, B. F.

K. G. Larkin, B. F. Oreb, “Design and assessment of symmetrical phase shifting algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1740–1748 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Farrant, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, M. A. Suchting, C. J. Walsh, “Metrology of LIGO Pathfinder optics,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 74–79 (1996).

C. J. Walsh, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, “Power spectral density analysis of LIGO substrates” (submitted to Appl. Opt.1999).

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

Pavlovic, E.

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

Raab, F.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudiger, A.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saha, P.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Schilling, R.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnier, D.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schrempel, M.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seckold, J.

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

Seckold, J. A.

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spero, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spero, R. E.

R. E. Spero, S. E. Whitcomb, “The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project,” Opt. Photon. News 6(7), 35–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suchting, M. A.

D. I. Farrant, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, M. A. Suchting, C. J. Walsh, “Metrology of LIGO Pathfinder optics,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 74–79 (1996).

Thorne, K.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thwaite, E. G.

Vanherck, P.

P. Vanherck, K. U. Leuven, “STC’S’ co-operative work on phase correct Gaussian filtering in surface roughness measurement,” Ann. CIRP (Coop. Inst. Res. Program) 43, 599–601 (1994).

Vogt, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, C. J.

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

C. J. Walsh, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, “Power spectral density analysis of LIGO substrates” (submitted to Appl. Opt.1999).

D. I. Farrant, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, M. A. Suchting, C. J. Walsh, “Metrology of LIGO Pathfinder optics,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 74–79 (1996).

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Ward, B. K.

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Watts, D. G.

G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral Analysis and its Applications (Holden-Day, San Francisco, Calif., 1969).

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

R. Weiss, “Compilation of metrology data for the LIGO large optics,” (LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Whitcomb, S.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Whitcomb, S. E.

R. E. Spero, S. E. Whitcomb, “The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project,” Opt. Photon. News 6(7), 35–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, “Absolute optical testing: better accuracy than the reference,” Photon. Spectra 25(3), 97–101 (1991).

Yamamoto, H.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

Zucker, M.

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. CIRP (Coop. Inst. Res. Program)

P. Vanherck, K. U. Leuven, “STC’S’ co-operative work on phase correct Gaussian filtering in surface roughness measurement,” Ann. CIRP (Coop. Inst. Res. Program) 43, 599–601 (1994).

Appl. Opt.

Int. J. Modern Phys. D

L. Ju, D. G. Blair, “The detection of gravitational waves,” Int. J. Modern Phys. D 5, 101–150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nucl. Phys. B

B. Caronthe VIRGO group, “The VIRGO interferometer for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Phys. B 54B, 167–175 (1997).

Opt. Eng.

P. Hariharan, “Optical flat surfaces: direct interferometric measurement of small scale surface irregularities,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3265–3266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Improved oblique-incidence interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 14, 257–258 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harvey, K. L. Lewotsky, A. Kotha, “Performance predictions of a Schwarzschild imaging microscope for soft x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2423–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News

R. E. Spero, S. E. Whitcomb, “The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project,” Opt. Photon. News 6(7), 35–39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Spectra

J. C. Wyant, “Absolute optical testing: better accuracy than the reference,” Photon. Spectra 25(3), 97–101 (1991).

Phys. Lett. A

D. Schnier, J. Mizuno, G. Heinzel, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Power recycling in the Garching 30 m prototype interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Lett. A 225, 210–216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Abramovici, W. Althouse, R. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. Spero, K. Thorne, R. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, M. Zucker, “LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Weiss, “Compilation of metrology data for the LIGO large optics,” (LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral Analysis and its Applications (Holden-Day, San Francisco, Calif., 1969).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), Chap. 4.

Talysurf stylus optical profiler, Rank Taylor Hobson, Leicester, UK.

D. F. Horne, Optical Polishing Technology (Hilger, London, 1972), Chap. 4.

S. Whitcomb, G. Billingsley, J. Carri, A. Golovitser, D. Jungwirth, W. Kells, H. Yamamoto, B. Bochner, Y. Hefetz, P. Saha, R. Weiss, “Optics development for LIGO,” LIGO publ. LIGO-P960044-00-D, presented at the TAMA Workshop on Gravitational Wave Detection, Saitama, JapanNovember 11–12, 1996.

A. J. Leistner, D. I. Farrant, B. F. Oreb, E. Pavlovic, J. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “LIGO optics manufacture: figuring transmission core optics for best performance” [to be presented at Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, SPIE Annual Meeting, Denver, 1999 (Conference SD14)].

Vision software package, Veeco Inc., 2650 E. Elvira Road, Tucson, Ariz., 85706.

K. Creath, “Error sources in phase measuring interferometry,” in Intl Symp on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. SPIE1720, 428–435 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Farrant, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, M. A. Suchting, C. J. Walsh, “Metrology of LIGO Pathfinder optics,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. P. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 74–79 (1996).

P. S. Fairman, B. K. Ward, B. F. Oreb, D. I. Farrant, Y. Gilliand, C. H. Freund, A. J. Leistner, J. A. Seckold, C. J. Walsh, “A 300 mm aperture phase shifting interferometer” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

C. J. Walsh, A. J. Leistner, B. F. Oreb, “Power spectral density analysis of LIGO substrates” (submitted to Appl. Opt.1999).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the LIGO facility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow diagram of the polishing process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIGO substrate (distinguished by the wedge) inside a glass runner and polished on a 600-mm-diameter Teflon lap.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the digital interferometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement geometry used for the three-flat absolute calibration procedure with sag in the reference surface also calibrated. Thick curves represent the surfaces measured in each configuration; the arrows indicate relative orientations between different configurations. Surface C becomes the calibrated surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface-height variations over two orthogonal chords ∼290 mm long on flat C. Only tilt has been removed from the data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left: Gray-scale-coded phase map of the RDF over 240 mm. Right: the same map with power and astigmatism removed, showing the fine spatial features in the map. The peak-to-valley (P–V) value is 26 nm; the dominant contribution is from the sag in the reference surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gray-scale-coded phase maps of the surface of an ETM (top), a RM (middle), and a FM (bottom) over a 240-mm aperture. The images on the left-hand side are the surface as measured with only tilt removed; the images on the right have tilt, power, and astigmatism removed. The rms of the phase maps on the right are 0.9 nm (top), 1.6 nm (middle), and 1.3 nm (bottom). The concentric rings seen in the map at the top right are most likely to be measurement artifacts caused by turbulence during the phase shift process. Their amplitude is small although their contribution to the rms is significant.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission characteristic of an aperture filter of width 2.3 mm = (4.3 cm-1)-1 (solid curve) compared with a Gaussian filter with the same nominal cut-on frequency (dotted curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

PSD plots (units, m3) as a function of spatial frequency (units, cm-1) for (a) a RM, (b) an ETM, and (c) a FM. The three traces are derived from LADI data (<0.1 to 10 cm-1), TOPO 2.5× data (2 to 1000 cm-1), and TOPO 40× data (30 to 104 cm-1) with corrections for instrumental response as discussed in Ref. 20.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Optical and Dimensional Specifications for the ITM

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Specifications for the Different Families of Optical Substratesa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Metrology Instruments Used to Certify the Optical Parameters Specified by LIGO

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Table 4 Uncertainties in the Calibration of the Reference Surface

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Table 5 Results for the First 12 Optical Substrates Polished

Equations (2)

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 PSDvdv=1L0L z2xdx,
PSDv=K/vn,

Metrics