Abstract

The characterization of roughness of engineering surfaces over an area is an important task for different applications as well as for manufacturing processes. The surface roughness is in particular an important factor in determining the performance of a workpiece. We demonstrate that the fringe projection technique allows very fast three-dimensional surface inspections. The inspection time for an entire measurement is reduced to less than 5 s with standard hardware. Based on a zoom stereo microscope setup, we demonstrate a modular measuring instrument. The magnification-dependent vertical resolution can be as high as 0.1 µm. The special properties for roughness measurements are demonstrated, especially the comparability with a tactile sensor and with other optical sensors, which is discussed in connection with amplitude parameters.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Whitehouse, “Review article: surface metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 955–972 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London), Chaps. 1–3 (1990).
  5. R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements using extended white light interferometry” (Opt. Eng., to be published).
  6. K. Leonhardt, U. Droste, H. J. Tiziani, “Microshape and rough-surface analysis by fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7477–7488 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Meßsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F&M, 106, 612–615 (1998).
  8. R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Takeda, K. Mutoh, “Fourier-transform profilometry for the automatic measurement of 3-D object shape,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3977–3982 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Topometry of technical and biological objects by fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3644–3650 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. O. Saldner, J. M. Huntley, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).
  13. R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Semispatial, robust, and accurate phase evaluation algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7321–7326 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Schmit, K. Croath, “Window function influence on phase error in phase-shifting algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5642–5649 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).
  16. H. J. Jordan, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Meßsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F&M, 106, 612–615 (1998).

H. J. Jordan, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Whitehouse, “Review article: surface metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 955–972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Saldner, J. M. Huntley, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

U. Breitmeier, “Lasermeßtechnik zur Oberflächen-Qualitätskontrolle,” Laser Optoelektron. 24(2), 48–53 (1992).

1983 (1)

M. Takeda, K. Mutoh, “Fourier-transform profilometry for the automatic measurement of 3-D object shape,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3977–3982 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Breitmeier, U.

U. Breitmeier, “Lasermeßtechnik zur Oberflächen-Qualitätskontrolle,” Laser Optoelektron. 24(2), 48–53 (1992).

Croath, K.

Dong, W. P.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Dorsch, R. G.

Droste, U.

Fleischer, M.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankowski, G.

G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Meßsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F&M, 106, 612–615 (1998).

Gerber, J.

J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).

Häusler, G.

Herrmann, J. M.

Huntley, J. M.

H. O. Saldner, J. M. Huntley, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, H. J.

H. J. Jordan, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).

Kühmstedt, P.

J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).

Leonhardt, K.

Luo, N.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Mainsah, E.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Mathia, T.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Mutoh, K.

M. Takeda, K. Mutoh, “Fourier-transform profilometry for the automatic measurement of 3-D object shape,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3977–3982 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).

Saldner, H. O.

H. O. Saldner, J. M. Huntley, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, J.

Schreiber, W.

J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).

Stout, K. J.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Sullivan, P. J.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Takeda, M.

M. Takeda, K. Mutoh, “Fourier-transform profilometry for the automatic measurement of 3-D object shape,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3977–3982 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

H. J. Jordan, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Topometry of technical and biological objects by fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3644–3650 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Semispatial, robust, and accurate phase evaluation algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7321–7326 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leonhardt, U. Droste, H. J. Tiziani, “Microshape and rough-surface analysis by fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7477–7488 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements using extended white light interferometry” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Wegner, M.

H. J. Jordan, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whitehouse, D. J.

D. J. Whitehouse, “Review article: surface metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 955–972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Windecker, R.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Topometry of technical and biological objects by fringe projection,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3644–3650 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Semispatial, robust, and accurate phase evaluation algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7321–7326 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements using extended white light interferometry” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

Zahouani, H.

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

Appl. Opt. (6)

F&M (1)

G. Frankowski, “Optisches 3D-Meßsystem zur Mikroprofil-und Rauheitsmessung,” F&M, 106, 612–615 (1998).

Laser Optoelektron. (1)

U. Breitmeier, “Lasermeßtechnik zur Oberflächen-Qualitätskontrolle,” Laser Optoelektron. 24(2), 48–53 (1992).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. J. Whitehouse, “Review article: surface metrology,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 955–972 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jordan, M. Wegner, H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, H. J. Tiziani, “Three-dimensional topometry with stereo microscopes,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3372–3377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Saldner, J. M. Huntley, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Gerber, P. Kühmstedt, R. Kowarschik, G. Notni, W. Schreiber, “Three-coordinate measuring system with structured light,” in Interferometry ’94: Photomechanics, R. J. Pryputniewicz, J. Stupnicki, eds., Proc. SPIE2342, 41–49 (1994).

K. J. Stout, P. J. Sullivan, W. P. Dong, E. Mainsah, N. Luo, T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, “The development of methods for the characterization of roughness in three dimensions,” (Commission of the European Communities, London, 1993).

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London), Chaps. 1–3 (1990).

R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Optical roughness measurements using extended white light interferometry” (Opt. Eng., to be published).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section through the topography of a depth-setting standard.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimension topography of a roughness standard with a mean roughness of 1.45 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of two profile traces obtained from a fine roughness standard. Top, reference measurement of a tactile stylus sensor. Bottom, optical measurement with the fringe projection technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of two profile traces obtained from a roughness standard with a large mean roughness. Top, reference measurement. Bottom, optical measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of two power spectra obtained from the roughness standard of Fig. 3. Top, reference measurement. Bottom, optical measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean roughness R a measured with our optical sensor compared with the values measured with a tactile sensor.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean roughness S a measured with different sensors on several grounded surface. Tactile, tactile stylus sensor from UBM. WLI, white-light interferometry. CM, confocal microscopy. Stereo, stereo microscope with different magnifications.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gray-coded 3-D topography of a diffractive optical element (top) and cross section (bottom).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Roughness Ra [µm]

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean Roughness Rq [µm]

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φx, y=arctan5I2-15I4+11I6-I8I1-11I3+15I5-5I7.
Ra=1Ni=1N |hi|
Rq=1Ni=1N hi21/2,
Sa=1NMi=1Nk=1M |hik|.

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