Abstract

A modified in-line Sagnac interferometer (MISI) with passive demodulation Technique (PDT) was proposed to immunize the fiber-optic current sensor (FOCS) from environmental perturbations. A large vibration to simulate the environmental perturbations with acceleration up to 12 g was applied to the lead fiber of the FOCS. The noise floor could be significantly suppressed (20 dB) by the MISI better than by a conventional interferometer. In the same dynamic environments, the PDT could make the FOCS achieve a good linear demodulation with average distortion rates always lower than 0.9%. In addition, all the sensitivities measured in both static and dynamic environments are all approximately 4.5 µrad/(Arms turns), which is close to the literatural data measured in static environments. These considerable achievements of high sensitivity, environmental immunity, and free electric shock concerns may lead FOCS’s to field-monitoring applications of power delivery lines.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, “Fiber current sensors for HV lines,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 270–274 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. MacDougall, D. R. Lutz, R. A. Wandmacher, “Development of a fiber optic current sensor for power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 7, 848–849 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Papp, H. Harms, “Magnetooptical current transformer. 1. Principles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3729–3745 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. P. A. Nicatti, P. Robert, “Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Phys. E 21, 791–796 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Blake, P. Tantasnadi, R. T. de Carvalho, “In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 116–121 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Frosio, R. Dandliker, “Reciprocal reflection interferometer for a fiber-optic Faraday current sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6111–6122 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, “Linear birefringence effects on fiber-optic current sensors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3088–3096 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. B. Rochford, G. W. Day, P. R. Forman, “Polarization dependence of response functions in 3 × 3 Sagnac optical fiber current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1504–1509 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Lin, W. W. Lin, M. H. Cheng, S. C. Huang, “Fiber optic current sensor using passive demodulation interferometric scheme,” Fiber Integr. Opt. (to be published).
  12. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 103–104.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Phase sensitivity normalization in time-division multiplexing of polarization insensitive interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier demodulation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2634–2640 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Cross-talk analysis of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber- optic Michelson interferometric sensors with 3 × 3 directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 921–933 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Phase sensitivity normalization in time-division multiplexing of polarization insensitive interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier demodulation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2634–2640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Blake, P. Tantasnadi, R. T. de Carvalho, “In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 116–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

K. B. Rochford, G. W. Day, P. R. Forman, “Polarization dependence of response functions in 3 × 3 Sagnac optical fiber current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1504–1509 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Frosio, R. Dandliker, “Reciprocal reflection interferometer for a fiber-optic Faraday current sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6111–6122 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. W. MacDougall, D. R. Lutz, R. A. Wandmacher, “Development of a fiber optic current sensor for power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 7, 848–849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

S. Dontai, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, “Magnetooptical fiber sensor for electrical industry analysis of performance,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372–382 (1988).

P. A. Nicatti, P. Robert, “Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Phys. E 21, 791–796 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, “Linear birefringence effects on fiber-optic current sensors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3088–3096 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

S. Dontai, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, “Magnetooptical fiber sensor for electrical industry analysis of performance,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372–382 (1988).

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, “Fiber current sensors for HV lines,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 270–274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J.

J. Blake, P. Tantasnadi, R. T. de Carvalho, “In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 116–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chao, M. L.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. H.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Cross-talk analysis of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber- optic Michelson interferometric sensors with 3 × 3 directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 921–933 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Phase sensitivity normalization in time-division multiplexing of polarization insensitive interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier demodulation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2634–2640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M. H.

H. Lin, W. W. Lin, M. H. Cheng, S. C. Huang, “Fiber optic current sensor using passive demodulation interferometric scheme,” Fiber Integr. Opt. (to be published).

Dandliker, R.

Day, G. W.

K. B. Rochford, G. W. Day, P. R. Forman, “Polarization dependence of response functions in 3 × 3 Sagnac optical fiber current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1504–1509 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Carvalho, R. T.

J. Blake, P. Tantasnadi, R. T. de Carvalho, “In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 116–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donati, S.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, “Fiber current sensors for HV lines,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 270–274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dontai, S.

S. Dontai, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, “Magnetooptical fiber sensor for electrical industry analysis of performance,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372–382 (1988).

Forman, P. R.

K. B. Rochford, G. W. Day, P. R. Forman, “Polarization dependence of response functions in 3 × 3 Sagnac optical fiber current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1504–1509 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, “Linear birefringence effects on fiber-optic current sensors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3088–3096 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frosio, G.

Harms, H.

Huang, S. C.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Cross-talk analysis of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber- optic Michelson interferometric sensors with 3 × 3 directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 921–933 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Phase sensitivity normalization in time-division multiplexing of polarization insensitive interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier demodulation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2634–2640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, W. W. Lin, M. H. Cheng, S. C. Huang, “Fiber optic current sensor using passive demodulation interferometric scheme,” Fiber Integr. Opt. (to be published).

Jahoda, F. C.

Lin, H.

H. Lin, W. W. Lin, M. H. Cheng, S. C. Huang, “Fiber optic current sensor using passive demodulation interferometric scheme,” Fiber Integr. Opt. (to be published).

Lin, W. W.

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Cross-talk analysis of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber- optic Michelson interferometric sensors with 3 × 3 directional coupler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 921–933 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Phase sensitivity normalization in time-division multiplexing of polarization insensitive interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier demodulation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2634–2640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer sensors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1244–1246 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, W. W. Lin, M. H. Cheng, S. C. Huang, “Fiber optic current sensor using passive demodulation interferometric scheme,” Fiber Integr. Opt. (to be published).

Lutz, D. R.

T. W. MacDougall, D. R. Lutz, R. A. Wandmacher, “Development of a fiber optic current sensor for power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 7, 848–849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

MacDougall, T. W.

T. W. MacDougall, D. R. Lutz, R. A. Wandmacher, “Development of a fiber optic current sensor for power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 7, 848–849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nicatti, P. A.

P. A. Nicatti, P. Robert, “Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Phys. E 21, 791–796 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Papp, A.

Robert, P.

P. A. Nicatti, P. Robert, “Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Phys. E 21, 791–796 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

K. B. Rochford, G. W. Day, P. R. Forman, “Polarization dependence of response functions in 3 × 3 Sagnac optical fiber current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1504–1509 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russell, B. D.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Short, S. X.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

Tambasso, T.

S. Dontai, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, “Magnetooptical fiber sensor for electrical industry analysis of performance,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372–382 (1988).

Tantasnadi, P.

J. Blake, P. Tantasnadi, R. T. de Carvalho, “In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 116–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tantaswadi, P.

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Wandmacher, R. A.

T. W. MacDougall, D. R. Lutz, R. A. Wandmacher, “Development of a fiber optic current sensor for power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 7, 848–849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 103–104.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 103–104.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Power Delivery (3)

S. X. Short, P. Tantaswadi, R. T. de Carvalho, B. D. Russell, J. Blake, “An experimental study of acoustic vibration effects in optical fiber current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 1702–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Blake, P. Tantasnadi, R. T. de Carvalho, “In-line Sagnac interferometer current sensor,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 11, 116–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. W. MacDougall, D. R. Lutz, R. A. Wandmacher, “Development of a fiber optic current sensor for power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 7, 848–849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. B. Rochford, G. W. Day, P. R. Forman, “Polarization dependence of response functions in 3 × 3 Sagnac optical fiber current sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1504–1509 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, M. L. Chao, “Time division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1488–1500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

P. A. Nicatti, P. Robert, “Stabilized current sensor using a Sagnac interferometer,” J. Phys. E 21, 791–796 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, “Phase sensitivity normalization in time-division multiplexing of polarization insensitive interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier demodulation,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2634–2640 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

S. Dontai, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, T. Tambasso, “Magnetooptical fiber sensor for electrical industry analysis of performance,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 135, 372–382 (1988).

Other (3)

V. Annovazzi-Lodi, S. Donati, “Fiber current sensors for HV lines,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE798, 270–274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, W. W. Lin, M. H. Cheng, S. C. Huang, “Fiber optic current sensor using passive demodulation interferometric scheme,” Fiber Integr. Opt. (to be published).

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 103–104.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the MISI–FOCS with the PDT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computer simulations of the FOCS’s with perturbations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the MISI–FOCS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distortion rates of linear demodulation versus variable electric currents.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Faraday signals versus electric currents.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical responses of the FOCS’s measured at 2 min for a current step from 300 to 600 A.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θF=V l Hdl,
Ei=E211.
fl=fl= expjΦ/200exp-jΦ/2,
r=121-j-j1,  r=121jj1.
fc=fc=cosΘsinΘ-sinΘcosΘ,
s=cosφi2+θFsinφi2+θF-sinφi2+θFcosφi2+θF, s=cosφi2-θFsinφi2-θF-sinφi2-θFcosφi2-θF,
m=-1001.
Eo=fl·r·fc·s·m·s·fc·r·fl·Ei.
Eo=jE2expj2θF-exp-j2θF.
P=121111.
Et=PEo=-E sin 2θF 11.
I=I01-cos 4θF,
F=cos θsin θ-sin θcos θ,  F=cos θ-sin θsin θcos θ.
Eo=fl·r·F·fc·s·m·s·fc·F·r·fl·Ei.
I=I01-cos4θF+4θ.
I=I01+sin 4θF.
Δne=4nλl LB ScLB2 S t,
fcn=fcn=cosθnsinθn-sinθncosθn,
fp=fp=expjΔφp00exp-jΔφp,
FRM=0-1-10.
EoISI=fl·r·F·fc1·fp·fc2·s·m·s·fc2·fp·fc1·F·r·fl·Ei,
EoMISI=fl·r·F·fc1·fp·fc2·s·FRM·s·fc2·fp·fc1·F·r·fl·Ei.
IISI=Iosin 2θF+cos 2θF cos 2Δϕp2,
IMISI=Iocos 2θF-sin 2θF cos 2Δϕp2,

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