Abstract

We propose a nondestructive inspection method for the quantitative analysis of molds inside soya beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) that does not render the beans unfit for human consumption. Three near-infrared lasers are used for multispectral transmission imaging of the beans. Eigenvalue analysis and a least-squares method are used for estimation of the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each type of mold. The estimated spectra are used for determining the internal concentration of the molds inside the beans. Experimental results verify the usefulness of our method.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. H. Norris, P. C. Williams, “Optimization of mathematical treatments of raw near-infrared signal in the measurement of protein in hard red spring wheat. I. Influence of particle size,” Cereal Chem. 61, 158–165 (1984).
  3. N. Asker, S. Kokot, “The application of NIR spectroscopy for the prediction of properties of Australian refined reformate,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1153–1157 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. G. Osbourne, T. Fearn, P. H. Hindle, Practical NIR Spectroscopy (Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK, 1993), pp. 145–199.
  5. C. Chatfield, A. J. Collins, Introduction to Multivariate Analysis (Chapman & Hall, London, 1980), pp. 55–79.

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

K. H. Norris, P. C. Williams, “Optimization of mathematical treatments of raw near-infrared signal in the measurement of protein in hard red spring wheat. I. Influence of particle size,” Cereal Chem. 61, 158–165 (1984).

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asker, N.

Chatfield, C.

C. Chatfield, A. J. Collins, Introduction to Multivariate Analysis (Chapman & Hall, London, 1980), pp. 55–79.

Collins, A. J.

C. Chatfield, A. J. Collins, Introduction to Multivariate Analysis (Chapman & Hall, London, 1980), pp. 55–79.

Fearn, T.

B. G. Osbourne, T. Fearn, P. H. Hindle, Practical NIR Spectroscopy (Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK, 1993), pp. 145–199.

Hindle, P. H.

B. G. Osbourne, T. Fearn, P. H. Hindle, Practical NIR Spectroscopy (Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK, 1993), pp. 145–199.

Kokot, S.

Norris, K. H.

K. H. Norris, P. C. Williams, “Optimization of mathematical treatments of raw near-infrared signal in the measurement of protein in hard red spring wheat. I. Influence of particle size,” Cereal Chem. 61, 158–165 (1984).

Osbourne, B. G.

B. G. Osbourne, T. Fearn, P. H. Hindle, Practical NIR Spectroscopy (Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK, 1993), pp. 145–199.

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. C.

K. H. Norris, P. C. Williams, “Optimization of mathematical treatments of raw near-infrared signal in the measurement of protein in hard red spring wheat. I. Influence of particle size,” Cereal Chem. 61, 158–165 (1984).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Cereal Chem. (1)

K. H. Norris, P. C. Williams, “Optimization of mathematical treatments of raw near-infrared signal in the measurement of protein in hard red spring wheat. I. Influence of particle size,” Cereal Chem. 61, 158–165 (1984).

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. G. Osbourne, T. Fearn, P. H. Hindle, Practical NIR Spectroscopy (Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK, 1993), pp. 145–199.

C. Chatfield, A. J. Collins, Introduction to Multivariate Analysis (Chapman & Hall, London, 1980), pp. 55–79.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). Photographs of (a) the exterior of the PCL soya beans and of the interiors of the split beans with (b) green mold, (c) white mold, (d) brown mold, and (e) subcutaneous parching or stiffening.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NIR diffuse reflectance spectra of the PCL soya beans within the wavelength region 650–2500 nm: (a) a normal edible soya bean without mold and stiffness, (b) green mold, (c) white mold, (d) brown mold, (e) subcutaneous parching or stiffening.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated spectra for soya beans (S1) without anomalies and (S2) with green mold.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for NIR transmission imaging: BS’s, beam splitters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NIR transmission images of beans with green mold at the wavelengths indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Estimated distributions at each pixel of the concentration of (a) the good section of a soya bean and (b) the section with green mold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image that is independent of the effect of object’s thickness, obtained by division of the image in Fig. 6(b) by that of Fig. 6(a).

Equations (5)

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P=a1,1a1,900a10,1a10,900,
PtPx=ζx
Sij=k=1m tikxk,
Pnj=h=1i ChnSh,
Aλ1NAλ2NAλ3Nt=a1,λ1a2,λ1a1,λ2a2,λ2a1,λ3a2,λ3c1Nc2N,

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