Abstract

Concentration measurements of trace gases in the atmosphere require the use of highly sensitive and precise techniques. The UV–visible differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique is one that is heavily used for tropospheric measurements. To assess the advantages and drawbacks of using a Fourier transform spectrometer, we built a differential optical absorption spectroscopy optical setup based on a Bruker IFS 120M spectrometer. The characteristics and the capabilities of this setup have been studied and compared with those of the more conventional grating-based instruments. Two of the main advantages of the Fourier transform spectrometer are (1) the existence of a reproducible and precise wave-number scale, which greatly simplifies the algorithms used to analyze the atmospheric spectra, and (2) the possibility of recording large spectral regions at relatively high resolution, enabling the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical species with better discriminating properties. The main drawback, on the other hand, is due to the fact that a Fourier transform spectrometer is a scanning device for which the scanning time is small compared with the total measurement time. It does not have the signal integration capabilities of the CCD or photodiode array-based grating spectrographs. The Fourier transform spectrometer therefore needs fairly large amounts of light and is limited to short to medium absorption path lengths when working in the UV.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1998

R. Volkamer, T. Etzkorn, A. Geyer, U. Platt, “Correction of the oxygen interference with UV spectroscopic (DOAS) measurements of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3731–3747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. W. Harder, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, “Measurement of tropospheric trace gases by long-path differential absorption spectroscopy during the 1993 OH photochemistry experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6215–6226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Plane, C.-F. Nien, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measuring atmospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1867–1876 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Bongartz, J. Kames, F. Welter, U. Schurath, “Near UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1076–1082 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Allen, N.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Bergquist, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bolsée, D.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bongartz, A.

A. Bongartz, J. Kames, F. Welter, U. Schurath, “Near UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1076–1082 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brion, J.

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burgen, R. A.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Cacho, J.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Charbonnier, J.

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clemitshaw, R. C.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Clerbaux, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coe, H.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Colin, R.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Coquart, B.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

Daumont, D.

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DeMore, W. B.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Etzkorn, T.

R. Volkamer, T. Etzkorn, A. Geyer, U. Platt, “Correction of the oxygen interference with UV spectroscopic (DOAS) measurements of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3731–3747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Fally, S.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

Fayt, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Galle, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, A.

R. Volkamer, T. Etzkorn, A. Geyer, U. Platt, “Correction of the oxygen interference with UV spectroscopic (DOAS) measurements of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3731–3747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gil, M.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Golden, D. M.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Goutail, F.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Guilmot, J. M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

Hampson, R. F.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Harder, J. W.

J. W. Harder, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, “Measurement of tropospheric trace gases by long-path differential absorption spectroscopy during the 1993 OH photochemistry experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6215–6226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. W.

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Harrisson, R. M.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Hausmann, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

Howard, C. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, An Introduction to Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1983).

Jakoubek, R. O.

J. W. Harder, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, “Measurement of tropospheric trace gases by long-path differential absorption spectroscopy during the 1993 OH photochemistry experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6215–6226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jenouvrier, A.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

Jones, R. L.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Kabbadj, Y.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

Kames, J.

A. Bongartz, J. Kames, F. Welter, U. Schurath, “Near UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1076–1082 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, C. E.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Kurylo, M. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Lambert, J. C.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

Malicet, J.

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meller, X.

X. Meller, Max-Planck-Institut, Mainz, Germany (personal communication, 1991).

Mérienne, M. F.

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

Mérienne, M.-F.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Molina, M. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Mount, G. H.

J. W. Harder, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, “Measurement of tropospheric trace gases by long-path differential absorption spectroscopy during the 1993 OH photochemistry experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6215–6226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nien, C.-F.

J. M. Plane, C.-F. Nien, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measuring atmospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1867–1876 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nunes-Pinharanda, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nunes-Pinharanda, Service Aéronomie–Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 3, 91371 Verrières le Buisson, France (personal communication, 1995).

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Pätz, H.

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peak, J.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Perner, D.

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 97–105.
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. J. N.

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Plane, J.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Plane, J. M.

J. M. Plane, C.-F. Nien, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measuring atmospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1867–1876 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plane, J. M. C.

J. M. C. Plane, “Spectroscopic techniques for atmospheric measurements,” in Topics in Atmospheric and Interstellar Physics and Chemistry, C. F. Boutron, ed. (Editions de Physique, Les Ulis, France, 1994), pp. 309–333.

Platt, U.

R. Volkamer, T. Etzkorn, A. Geyer, U. Platt, “Correction of the oxygen interference with UV spectroscopic (DOAS) measurements of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3731–3747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 97–105.
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–84.

Pommereau, J. P.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Pundt, I.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Rudolph, T.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sander, S. P.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Sanders, R. W.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schurath, U.

A. Bongartz, J. Kames, F. Welter, U. Schurath, “Near UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1076–1082 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Smith, N.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, J.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Van Roozendael, M.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

Vandaele, A. C.

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, “Développements d’instruments pour la détection de constituants troposphériques minoritaires par spectroscopic différentielle dans le domaine UV-visible,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 1997).

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

Volkamer, R.

R. Volkamer, T. Etzkorn, A. Geyer, U. Platt, “Correction of the oxygen interference with UV spectroscopic (DOAS) measurements of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3731–3747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Welter, F.

A. Bongartz, J. Kames, F. Welter, U. Schurath, “Near UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1076–1082 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Winer, A. M.

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yela, M.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

R. Volkamer, T. Etzkorn, A. Geyer, U. Platt, “Correction of the oxygen interference with UV spectroscopic (DOAS) measurements of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 3731–3747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. Van Roozendael, C. Fayt, D. Bolsée, P. C. Simon, M. Gil, M. Yela, J. Cacho, “Ground-based stratospheric NO2 monitoring at Keflavik (Iceland) during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1379–1382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, A. M. Winer, G. W. Harris, J. J. N. Pitts, “Detection of NO3 in the polluted troposphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 89–92 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergquist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Van Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of the NO2 absorption cross-sections in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25, 289–305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Daumont, J. Brion, J. Charbonnier, J. Malicet, “Ozone UV spectroscopy I: absorption cross-sections at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 145–155 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. W. Harder, R. O. Jakoubek, G. H. Mount, “Measurement of tropospheric trace gases by long-path differential absorption spectroscopy during the 1993 OH photochemistry experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6215–6226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2 by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross-section measurement in the UV using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

A. Bongartz, J. Kames, F. Welter, U. Schurath, “Near UV absorption cross sections and trans/cis equilibrium of nitrous acid,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1076–1082 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, R. Colin, S. Fally, M.-F. Mérienne, A. Jenouvrier, B. Coquart, “Measurements of the NO2 absorption cross-section from 42000 cm-1 to 10000 cm-1 (238–1000 nm) at 220 K and 294 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 171–184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. M. Plane, C.-F. Nien, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measuring atmospheric trace gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1867–1876 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Nunes-Pinharanda, Service Aéronomie–Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 3, 91371 Verrières le Buisson, France (personal communication, 1995).

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,” Evaluation 11, JPL 94/NASA publ. 94-1 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994).

X. Meller, Max-Planck-Institut, Mainz, Germany (personal communication, 1991).

M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Mérienne, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, “O2 absorption cross-sections and absolute intensities in the UV-visible using a Fourier transform spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications Symposium, A. Barbe, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1996), pp. 87–90.

M. Iqbal, An Introduction to Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1983).

A. C. Vandaele, “Développements d’instruments pour la détection de constituants troposphériques minoritaires par spectroscopic différentielle dans le domaine UV-visible,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, 1997).

European Space Agency, “GOME interim science report,” (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

European Space Agency, “ENVISAT-1 mission and system summary,” (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997).

M. Van Roozendael, C. Hermans, Y. Kabbadj, J. C. Lambert, A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, M. Carleer, J. M. Guilmot, R. Colin, “Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OClO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60 °N, 10 °E) during SESAME,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, ESA SP370, (European Space Agency/European Space Telecommunication, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995).

H. Coe, R. L. Jones, R. Colin, M. Carleer, R. M. Harrisson, J. Peak, J. Plane, N. Smith, N. Allen, R. C. Clemitshaw, R. A. Burgen, U. Platt, T. Etzkorn, J. Stutz, J. P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, P. C. Simon, C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, “A comparison of differential optical absorption spectrometers for measurements of NO2, O3, SO2 and HONO,” in Proceedings of EUROTRAC 96 (European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 757–762.

U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 27–84.

J. M. C. Plane, “Spectroscopic techniques for atmospheric measurements,” in Topics in Atmospheric and Interstellar Physics and Chemistry, C. F. Boutron, ed. (Editions de Physique, Les Ulis, France, 1994), pp. 309–333.

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 97–105.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the instrumental disposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response curves of the three detectors (UV, GaP diode, and Si diode, from left to right) used for atmospheric measurements when a Xe lamp is used as the light source. The spectral regions where some important atmospheric constituents are absorbing are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute and differential cross sections of some of the detected atmospheric species.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analysis procedure applied to (a) UV diode, (b) a Si diode spectra. The dashed curves represent the atmospheric differential spectrum, and the solid curves represent the calculated spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of NO2, O3, SO2, and toluene for a 4-day period extending from 25 to 28 August.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the NO2 measurements performed by the two detectors: ○, UV diode; ■, Si diode. Error bars (1σ) are also indicated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

NO3 concentration during the night from 3 to 4 September 1997. Error bars (1σ) are also indicated.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the Bruker 120M FTS

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characteristics of the Detectors Used for Atmospheric Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 3 Absorption Cross-Sectional Data for Some Important Species

Tables Icon

Table 4 Fitting Intervals, Detection Limits and rms Errors for Some of the Detected Speciesa

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iλ=I0λexp-i niσiλ+kRλ+kMλd,
Iλ=I0λIdiffλ,
σiλ=σ0,iλ+σdiff,iλ
lnIdiffλ=lnI0λIλ=i niσdiff,iλd.
lnI0λIλ=lnI0,SλISλ,
ISλ=ILλexp-i niσiλd.
lnI0λIλ=lnI0,SλILλ+i niσiλd.
nlim=1σdiffλdlnSNR+0.5SNR-0.5,

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