Abstract

We develop a general model of a laser remote-sensing system for search and rescue using targets marked with fluorescent dye. The dye fluoresces at a longer peak wavelength than the incident radiation, enabling a dye-covered target to be distinguished from the unshifted ground echo by the search system. The principal result is a simple expression derived for the average laser power required to search at a particular rate given a required ground energy density. A similar expression is applicable to imaging lidar systems. The example system shown indicates that active probing for lost planes may be practical.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. “Government agencies install new technology emergency locator transmitters on mission aircraft,” (NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C., 30August1996); http://www.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1996/96-178.txt .
  2. Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR2 pamphlet (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Search and Rescue Mission, Code 480, Greenbelt, Md. 20771).
  3. W. Vest, Director of Flight Operation for the Maryland Civil Air Patrol, 12694 Valley Oaks Court, Fairfax, Va. 22033 (personal communication, 1995).
  4. A. J. Hand, “Laser searches for downed aircraft,” Photonics Spectra54–55 (May1998).
  5. News column in Aviation Week & Space Technology, p. 47 (19August1974).
  6. News story, “Laser tested in search/rescue roles, Aviation Week & Space Technology, p. 51 (9September1974).
  7. R. S. Hughes, “Automatic night search and rescue system,” U.S. patent3839639 (1October1974).
  8. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light up the way to new technologies,” Photonics Spectra 28(7), 119–124 (1994).
  10. American National Standards for Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10036, 1993).
  11. J. B. Blair, D. B. Coyle, “Vegetation and topography mapping with an airborne laser altimeter using a high-efficiency laser and a scannable field-of-view telescope,” Proceedings of the Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 403–407.
  12. G. J. Zissis, ed., Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook. Vol. 1 of Sources of Radiation (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1993).
  13. M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).
  14. W. L. Nighan, B. Craig, “DPSS lasers challenge water-cooled ion lasers,” Laser Focus World 32, 63–70 (1996).
  15. Lightwave Electronics data sheet on the 210G laser (Lightwave Electronics, 2400 Charleston Road, Mountain View, Calif. 94043).
  16. R. E. Hermes, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene-BF2 laser dyes in a solid polymer host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 178–183 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Maslyukov, S. Sokolov, M. Kaivola, K. Nyholm, S. Popov, “Solid-state dye laser with modified poly(methyl methacrylate)-doped active elements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1516–1518 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, “Modified polymers—effective host materials for solid-state dye lasers and laser beam control elements: a review,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 136–147 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. J. Kessler, L. Pedulla, S. J. Davis, “Novel solid state dye laser host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Schaps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 190–201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. A. Ishchenko, “Structure and spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes. V. Spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes in polymeric matrices,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 60(8), 875–877 (1991).
  21. R. F. Kubin, A. N. Fletcher, “Fluorescence quantum yields of some Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 27, 455–463 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 118, 430–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

A. J. Hand, “Laser searches for downed aircraft,” Photonics Spectra54–55 (May1998).

1996

W. L. Nighan, B. Craig, “DPSS lasers challenge water-cooled ion lasers,” Laser Focus World 32, 63–70 (1996).

1995

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light up the way to new technologies,” Photonics Spectra 28(7), 119–124 (1994).

1991

A. A. Ishchenko, “Structure and spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes. V. Spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes in polymeric matrices,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 60(8), 875–877 (1991).

1982

R. F. Kubin, A. N. Fletcher, “Fluorescence quantum yields of some Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 27, 455–463 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blair, J. B.

J. B. Blair, D. B. Coyle, “Vegetation and topography mapping with an airborne laser altimeter using a high-efficiency laser and a scannable field-of-view telescope,” Proceedings of the Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 403–407.

Caulfield, H. J.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 118, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coyle, D. B.

J. B. Blair, D. B. Coyle, “Vegetation and topography mapping with an airborne laser altimeter using a high-efficiency laser and a scannable field-of-view telescope,” Proceedings of the Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 403–407.

Craig, B.

W. L. Nighan, B. Craig, “DPSS lasers challenge water-cooled ion lasers,” Laser Focus World 32, 63–70 (1996).

Davis, S. J.

W. J. Kessler, L. Pedulla, S. J. Davis, “Novel solid state dye laser host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Schaps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 190–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

Fletcher, A. N.

R. F. Kubin, A. N. Fletcher, “Fluorescence quantum yields of some Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 27, 455–463 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hand, A. J.

A. J. Hand, “Laser searches for downed aircraft,” Photonics Spectra54–55 (May1998).

Hermes, R. E.

R. E. Hermes, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene-BF2 laser dyes in a solid polymer host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. S.

R. S. Hughes, “Automatic night search and rescue system,” U.S. patent3839639 (1October1974).

Ishchenko, A. A.

A. A. Ishchenko, “Structure and spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes. V. Spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes in polymeric matrices,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 60(8), 875–877 (1991).

Johansson, J.

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

Kaivola, M.

Kessler, W. J.

W. J. Kessler, L. Pedulla, S. J. Davis, “Novel solid state dye laser host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Schaps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 190–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubin, R. F.

R. F. Kubin, A. N. Fletcher, “Fluorescence quantum yields of some Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 27, 455–463 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light up the way to new technologies,” Photonics Spectra 28(7), 119–124 (1994).

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manenkov, A. A.

A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, “Modified polymers—effective host materials for solid-state dye lasers and laser beam control elements: a review,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 136–147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maslyukov, A.

Maslyukov, A. P.

A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, “Modified polymers—effective host materials for solid-state dye lasers and laser beam control elements: a review,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 136–147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matyushin, G. A.

A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, “Modified polymers—effective host materials for solid-state dye lasers and laser beam control elements: a review,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 136–147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nechitailo, V. S.

A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, “Modified polymers—effective host materials for solid-state dye lasers and laser beam control elements: a review,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 136–147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nighan, W. L.

W. L. Nighan, B. Craig, “DPSS lasers challenge water-cooled ion lasers,” Laser Focus World 32, 63–70 (1996).

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 118, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noginova, N. E.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 118, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, K.

Pedulla, L.

W. J. Kessler, L. Pedulla, S. J. Davis, “Novel solid state dye laser host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Schaps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 190–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S.

Ragnarson, P.

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, S.

Svanberg, S.

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

Venkateswarlu, P.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 118, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vest, W.

W. Vest, Director of Flight Operation for the Maryland Civil Air Patrol, 12694 Valley Oaks Court, Fairfax, Va. 22033 (personal communication, 1995).

Wallinder, E.

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

Appl. Opt.

J. Lumin.

R. F. Kubin, A. N. Fletcher, “Fluorescence quantum yields of some Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 27, 455–463 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World

W. L. Nighan, B. Craig, “DPSS lasers challenge water-cooled ion lasers,” Laser Focus World 32, 63–70 (1996).

Nature (London)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. Gomes, E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 118, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Spectra

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers light up the way to new technologies,” Photonics Spectra 28(7), 119–124 (1994).

A. J. Hand, “Laser searches for downed aircraft,” Photonics Spectra54–55 (May1998).

Russ. Chem. Rev.

A. A. Ishchenko, “Structure and spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes. V. Spectral-luminescent properties of polymethine dyes in polymeric matrices,” Russ. Chem. Rev. 60(8), 875–877 (1991).

Other

News column in Aviation Week & Space Technology, p. 47 (19August1974).

News story, “Laser tested in search/rescue roles, Aviation Week & Space Technology, p. 51 (9September1974).

R. S. Hughes, “Automatic night search and rescue system,” U.S. patent3839639 (1October1974).

American National Standards for Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10036, 1993).

J. B. Blair, D. B. Coyle, “Vegetation and topography mapping with an airborne laser altimeter using a high-efficiency laser and a scannable field-of-view telescope,” Proceedings of the Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 403–407.

G. J. Zissis, ed., Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook. Vol. 1 of Sources of Radiation (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1993).

M. Andersson, H. Edner, J. Johansson, P. Ragnarson, S. Svanberg, E. Wallinder, “Remote monitoring of vegetation by spectral measurements and multi-colour fluorescence imaging,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse France, January1994).

“Government agencies install new technology emergency locator transmitters on mission aircraft,” (NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C., 30August1996); http://www.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/pressrel/1996/96-178.txt .

Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR2 pamphlet (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Search and Rescue Mission, Code 480, Greenbelt, Md. 20771).

W. Vest, Director of Flight Operation for the Maryland Civil Air Patrol, 12694 Valley Oaks Court, Fairfax, Va. 22033 (personal communication, 1995).

Lightwave Electronics data sheet on the 210G laser (Lightwave Electronics, 2400 Charleston Road, Mountain View, Calif. 94043).

R. E. Hermes, “Lasing performance of pyrromethene-BF2 laser dyes in a solid polymer host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 178–183 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Manenkov, A. P. Maslyukov, G. A. Matyushin, V. S. Nechitailo, “Modified polymers—effective host materials for solid-state dye lasers and laser beam control elements: a review,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 136–147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kessler, L. Pedulla, S. J. Davis, “Novel solid state dye laser host,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Schaps, ed., Proc. SPIE2115, 190–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Search model geometry. Plane at altitude R p flies with speed V p . The pump has full-angle divergence 20 p and illuminates the ground area A p .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal required to satisfy various false alarms P F and miss P M probabilities as a function of the average number of detected noise photons. The bottom and left axes are in counts; the top and right axes are in picojoules at 600 nm.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Assumed System Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Derived System Parameters using the Values in Table 1

Tables Icon

Table 3 Detected Noise Photon Countsa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Pump Energy Densitya

Tables Icon

Table 5 Average Optical Energy Requirements versus Search Conditions

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ns=λpEGAthc ηBWηcoll,
ηcoll=ηatmηDcos θπArRp2,
EGNsηcoll1ηBWAthcλp.
Pav=LxLyDxDyApEGηatmVpLx,
Pav=LyVpApDxDyEGηatm.
Ss=LyVp.
CF=Ap/DxDy.
Pav=EGCFSs/ηatm,
Ap=CFSs/f,
Ep=EGAp/ηatm.

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