Abstract

We fabricated submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films at a wavelength of 1300 nm with extinction ratios of ≥30 dB by stretching periodic multilayers of silver island layers and glass layers. We compared the measured and theoretical optical characteristics of the polarizing films. The measured optical characteristics were quantitatively different from preliminary theoretical ones reported in an earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 16, 964 (1991)]. We have improved the theory by considering the distribution in silver island shapes and the difference between the stretching ratios of the glass layers and the silver islands. We have successfully elucidated the optical characteristics of the fabricated optical polarizing films.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. For example, K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151–1161 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Taylor, G. Bucher, K. Jones, “High contrast polarizers for the near infrared,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1166, 446–453 (1989).
  4. K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Yamaki, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films with high extinction ratio using stacked silver island films,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J81-C-I, 247–253 (1998; in Japanese).
  6. K. Baba, M. Takakuwa, M. Miyagi, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of ultra-thin optical polarizing films using gold island films,” Opt. Rev. 4, 411–416 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing factors of the general ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67, 351–357 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  8. For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Yamaki, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films with high extinction ratio using stacked silver island films,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J81-C-I, 247–253 (1998; in Japanese).

1997 (1)

K. Baba, M. Takakuwa, M. Miyagi, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of ultra-thin optical polarizing films using gold island films,” Opt. Rev. 4, 411–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

For example, K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151–1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing factors of the general ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67, 351–357 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, Y.

For example, K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151–1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, T.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baba, K.

K. Yamaki, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films with high extinction ratio using stacked silver island films,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J81-C-I, 247–253 (1998; in Japanese).

K. Baba, M. Takakuwa, M. Miyagi, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of ultra-thin optical polarizing films using gold island films,” Opt. Rev. 4, 411–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucher, G.

M. Taylor, G. Bucher, K. Jones, “High contrast polarizers for the near infrared,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1166, 446–453 (1989).

Chipman, R. A.

M. Taylor, G. Bucher, K. Jones, “High contrast polarizers for the near infrared,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1166, 446–453 (1989).

Granqvist, C. G.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hirozawa, T.

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunderi, O.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K.

M. Taylor, G. Bucher, K. Jones, “High contrast polarizers for the near infrared,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1166, 446–453 (1989).

Kawakami, S.

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

For example, K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151–1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

K. Yamaki, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films with high extinction ratio using stacked silver island films,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J81-C-I, 247–253 (1998; in Japanese).

K. Baba, M. Takakuwa, M. Miyagi, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of ultra-thin optical polarizing films using gold island films,” Opt. Rev. 4, 411–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Optical polarizer using anisotropic metallic island films with a large aperture and a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 16, 964–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norrman, S.

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, J. A.

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing factors of the general ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67, 351–357 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

For example, K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151–1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takakuwa, M.

K. Baba, M. Takakuwa, M. Miyagi, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of ultra-thin optical polarizing films using gold island films,” Opt. Rev. 4, 411–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M.

M. Taylor, G. Bucher, K. Jones, “High contrast polarizers for the near infrared,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1166, 446–453 (1989).

Yamaki, K.

K. Yamaki, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films with high extinction ratio using stacked silver island films,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J81-C-I, 247–253 (1998; in Japanese).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Sato, K. Baba, T. Hirozawa, K. Shiraishi, S. Kawakami, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of Al–SiO2 laminated optical polarizers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 175–181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

For example, K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, “Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151–1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Baba, M. Takakuwa, M. Miyagi, “Fabrication techniques and characteristics of ultra-thin optical polarizing films using gold island films,” Opt. Rev. 4, 411–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing factors of the general ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67, 351–357 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

For example, S. Norrman, T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, “Optical properties of discontinuous gold island films,” Phys. Rev. B 18, 674–693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. (1)

K. Yamaki, K. Baba, M. Miyagi, “Submicrometer-thick optical polarizing films with high extinction ratio using stacked silver island films,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J81-C-I, 247–253 (1998; in Japanese).

Other (1)

M. Taylor, G. Bucher, K. Jones, “High contrast polarizers for the near infrared,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1166, 446–453 (1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the polarizing film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical surface structure of a 15-nm-thick silver island film observed with an atomic force microscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral transmittances of a 15-nm-thick silver island film before stretching. Dotted–dashed curves, measured results. Dashed and solid curves, theoretical spectral transmittances calculated from the previous theory4 (theoretical #1) and from consideration of the distribution in the island shapes (theoretical #2), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured resonance wavelengths of the various stretched multilayers consisting of 1, 5, 10, and 15 silver island layers, as a function of the stretching ratio m of the glass substrate. Solid and dashed curves, theoretical resonance wavelengths obtained by assuming that m i = 0.2(m - 1) + 1 and m i = m, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured optical losses of the polarizing film fabricated by use of the optimum fabricating conditions described in Section 2 and the theoretical optical losses calculated by assuming that = 2 and m i = 2.4 and that Δp = 1.9 and Δp = 3.0.

Equations (14)

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,=1+dmdhL-sH,s+dm/dhs/H,2ωp2ω,2-ω2+jω/τ,
H,=s+L,-dm/lF,L-s,
ω,2=L,-dm/lF,H, ωp2,
a=6dmπdh1/2l.
λ,=2πc/ω,.
p=a/dh.
dh=6dml2πp21/3.
l=1/n
dopt=dh/2
hp=N exp-½logp/p¯/logΔp2,
0 hpdp=1.
,=0 hp,dp,
mi=m-1t+1,
t=0.2.

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