Abstract

The design and initial operation of a vertical square He–Ne ring laser G0 with a perimeter of 14 m is discussed. This builds on earlier demonstrations of the feasibility of large ring lasers (perimeter ∼4 m) for single-mode gyroscope operation and with lesser pulling than navigation gyroscopes. With servoing of the rf excitation to yield single-mode operation, G0 gave a quality factor 1 × 1012 and a Sagnac line with a frequency of 287.8 ± 1.0 Hz induced by Earth rotation ΩE. This has confirmed some vital questions over the feasibility of very large gyroscopes for geodetic measurements at the level of 10-9 ΩE.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.
  3. U. K. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Dunn, “Design of a triangular active ring laser 13 m on a side,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6405–6409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Bilger, “Low frequency noise in ring laser gyros,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. E. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. H. Simpson, eds., Proc. SPIE487, 42–48 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Müller, M. H. Soffel, “A Kennedy–Thorndike experiment using LLR data,” Phys. Lett. A 198, 71–73 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of a large perimeter ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.
  11. H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

1998

1997

G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, M. H. Soffel, “A Kennedy–Thorndike experiment using LLR data,” Phys. Lett. A 198, 71–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

Archinal, B. A.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bender, P. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilger, H. R.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, “Low frequency noise in ring laser gyros,” in Physics of Optical Ring Gyros, S. F. Jacobs, J. E. Killpatrick, V. E. Sanders, M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, J. H. Simpson, eds., Proc. SPIE487, 42–48 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of a large perimeter ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

Carter, M. S.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, S. J.

U. K. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Corbin, T. E.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Devegt, C.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, J. O.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, R. W.

Eubanks, T. M.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Faller, J. E.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fey, A. L.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Florkowski, D. R.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. M.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jauncey, D. L.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. J.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

King, B. T.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

King, E. A.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, C. P.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. D.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, P. M.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGregor, A. D.

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, M. H. Soffel, “A Kennedy–Thorndike experiment using LLR data,” Phys. Lett. A 198, 71–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newhall, X. X.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolson, G.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. E.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ricklefs, R. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ries, J. G.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowe, C. H.

U. K. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Russell, J. L.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Schreiber, U.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of a large perimeter ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

Schreiber, U. K.

Seeger, H.

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Shaffer, D. B.

K. J. Johnston, A. L. Fey, N. Zacharias, J. L. Russell, C. P. Ma, C. Devegt, J. E. Reynolds, D. L. Jauncey, B. A. Archinal, M. S. Carter, T. E. Corbin, T. M. Eubanks, D. R. Florkowski, D. M. Hall, D. D. McCarthy, P. M. McCulloch, E. A. King, G. Nicolson, D. B. Shaffer, “A radio reference frame,” Astron. J. 110, 880–915 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shelus, P. J.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Soffel, M. H.

J. Müller, M. H. Soffel, “A Kennedy–Thorndike experiment using LLR data,” Phys. Lett. A 198, 71–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, G. E.

U. K. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, “Ring laser tests of fundamental physics and geophysics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615–688 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, A. D. McGregor, H. R. Bilger, “Harmonic analysis in a precision ring laser with back-scatter induced pulling,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4944–4958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, “Stability of ring lasers with mirror misalignment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3710–3716 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

H. R. Bilger, U. Schreiber, G. E. Stedman, “Design and application of a large perimeter ring laser,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1996), pp. 8.0–8.8.

Veillet, C.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whipple, A. L.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiant, J. R.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. G.

J. O. Dickey, P. L. Bender, J. E. Faller, X. X. Newhall, R. L. Ricklefs, J. G. Ries, P. J. Shelus, C. Veillet, A. L. Whipple, J. R. Wiant, J. G. Williams, C. F. Yoder, “Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the Apollo program,” Science 265, 482–490 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, D. N.

U. K. Schreiber, C. H. Rowe, D. N. Wright, S. J. Cooper, G. E. Stedman, “Precision stabilization of the optical frequency in a large ring laser gyroscope,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8371–8381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, G. E. Stedman, C. H. Rowe, B. T. King, S. J. Cooper, D. N. Wright, H. Seeger, “Preliminary results from a large ring laser gyroscope for fundamental physics and geophysics,” in Proceedings of the Symposium Gyro Technology (University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997), pp. 16.0–16.5.

Yoder, C. F.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overall schematic of (a) G0 layout and (b) corner box detail.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Drift in the Sagnac frequency with time for G0 runs GNE35-36, 2 December 1998. The frequency estimates were made using a second-order autoregressive model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raw Sagnac frequency spectrum for part (327 s) of the run of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan deviations in G0 as a function of sample time. These values were derived from the autoregressive Sagnac frequency estimates. (a) The run of 29 January 1998 and (b) the run of Fig. 2 on 2 December 1998.

Equations (6)

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GI=-c/sξI+1-ξI-1+2l/s-ηI/RI-ϕI.
δf=4AΩλP=f0Ω cos Λ cos θ4F,
δf=287.75±0.46 Hz.
lc1-Rλ8πdP,
Ξ=1δfdδfdP2πMλ Υ, Υ=δfδf.
Υ=δf/δf21-Rcλ2/32πdAΩE2.

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