Abstract

In a proposed switching grating coupler (SGC), the grating period Λ is chosen so that the SGC converts from a first-order grating coupler to a third-order distributed Bragg reflector by means of a small change in the guided mode index. The principle for switching the radiated wave power and the effective aperture of the SGC were experimentally confirmed by use of the thermo-optic effect of a polymer waveguide. The extinction of the peak intensity of the wave radiated by the SGC and collected by an external lens was measured to be 5 dB with a temperature change of 10°.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Miler, M. Skalsky, “Stigmatically focusing grating coupler,” Electron. Lett. 15, 275–276 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–587 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Ura, Y. Furukawa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel pickup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1759–1763 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic interferometer position sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 270–273 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ura, T. Endoh, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic head for sensing a two-dimensional displacement of a grating scale,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6261–6266 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Ura, A. Sugimoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integration of grating couplers in two-story waveguides for rotary displacement sensing,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6345–6349 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. C. Svensson, C. T. Seaton, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, “Bistability and beam steering via grating couplers in ZnS waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), paper THW4.
  14. B. Svensson, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, “Guided-wave optical bistability and limiting in zinc sulfide thin films,” J. Appl. Opt. 67, 3882–3885 (1990).
  15. M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

S. Ura, Y. Furukawa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel pickup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1759–1763 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Svensson, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, “Guided-wave optical bistability and limiting in zinc sulfide thin films,” J. Appl. Opt. 67, 3882–3885 (1990).

1989 (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic interferometer position sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 270–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. Miler, M. Skalsky, “Stigmatically focusing grating coupler,” Electron. Lett. 15, 275–276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

B. Svensson, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, “Guided-wave optical bistability and limiting in zinc sulfide thin films,” J. Appl. Opt. 67, 3882–3885 (1990).

Cada, M.

M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Endoh, T.

Furukawa, Y.

Gibson, U. J.

B. C. Svensson, C. T. Seaton, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, “Bistability and beam steering via grating couplers in ZnS waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), paper THW4.

Hatem, C.

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Koster, A.

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Livanos, A. C.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Miler, M.

M. Miler, M. Skalsky, “Stigmatically focusing grating coupler,” Electron. Lett. 15, 275–276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, A. Sugimoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integration of grating couplers in two-story waveguides for rotary displacement sensing,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6345–6349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Endoh, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic head for sensing a two-dimensional displacement of a grating scale,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6261–6266 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, Y. Furukawa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel pickup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1759–1763 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic interferometer position sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 270–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paraire, N.

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pole, R. V.

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

B. C. Svensson, C. T. Seaton, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, “Bistability and beam steering via grating couplers in ZnS waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), paper THW4.

Shellan, J. B.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Skalsky, M.

M. Miler, M. Skalsky, “Stigmatically focusing grating coupler,” Electron. Lett. 15, 275–276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. P.

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stauffer, J. M.

M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

B. Svensson, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, “Guided-wave optical bistability and limiting in zinc sulfide thin films,” J. Appl. Opt. 67, 3882–3885 (1990).

B. C. Svensson, C. T. Seaton, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, “Bistability and beam steering via grating couplers in ZnS waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), paper THW4.

Sugimoto, A.

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, A. Sugimoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integration of grating couplers in two-story waveguides for rotary displacement sensing,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6345–6349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Endoh, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic head for sensing a two-dimensional displacement of a grating scale,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6261–6266 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, Y. Furukawa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel pickup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1759–1763 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic interferometer position sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 270–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, B.

B. Svensson, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, “Guided-wave optical bistability and limiting in zinc sulfide thin films,” J. Appl. Opt. 67, 3882–3885 (1990).

Svensson, B. C.

B. C. Svensson, C. T. Seaton, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, “Bistability and beam steering via grating couplers in ZnS waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), paper THW4.

Ura, S.

S. Ura, A. Sugimoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integration of grating couplers in two-story waveguides for rotary displacement sensing,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6345–6349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Endoh, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic head for sensing a two-dimensional displacement of a grating scale,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6261–6266 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, Y. Furukawa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Linearly focusing grating coupler for integrated-optic parallel pickup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1759–1763 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic interferometer position sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 270–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vasey, F.

M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Cada, F. Vasey, J. M. Stauffer, F. K. Reinhart, “Multiple-quantum-well nonlinear waveguide grating device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2366–2368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, “Grating coupler for efficient excitation of optical guided waves in thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523–525 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Heitmann, R. V. Pole, “Two-dimensional focusing holographic grating coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 585–587 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, T. P. Sosnowski, “Holographic thin film couplers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 1602–1608 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Miler, M. Skalsky, “Stigmatically focusing grating coupler,” Electron. Lett. 15, 275–276 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. Pardo, C. Hatem, A. Koster, N. Paraire, S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast optical switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–550 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Katzir, A. C. Livanos, J. B. Shellan, A. Yariv, “Chirped gratings in integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 296–304 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Svensson, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, “Guided-wave optical bistability and limiting in zinc sulfide thin films,” J. Appl. Opt. 67, 3882–3885 (1990).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic focal-spot intensity modulator using electrooptic polymer waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1569–1576 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Integrated-optic interferometer position sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 270–273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Other (1)

B. C. Svensson, C. T. Seaton, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, “Bistability and beam steering via grating couplers in ZnS waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1988), paper THW4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic views and vector diagrams of the proposed SGC (a) in a first-order GC condition and (b) in a third-order DBR condition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated power dependences of the radiation wave associated with a forward-propagating guided mode and the reflected guided wave on a mode index deviation of ΔN from 3K/2k 0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated decay of the guided wave power |A(z)|2/|A(0)|2 along propagation axis z for several values of the parameter ΔN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of a radiated wave from the SGC at center and those from two side reference GC’s at temperatures of (a) 31 and (b) 15 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured temperature dependence of focal spot intensity peak.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications for SGC Fabrication

Equations (2)

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dAzdz=-αAz-jκBA*Bzexp-j2Δz, -dBzdz=-αBz-jκBAAzexpj2Δz,
PA=0L 2α|Az|2dz.

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