Abstract

We have studied the history of vibration and demonstrate a laser-based noncontact interferometric vibration sensor. The sensor promises the measurement of microdisplacement by using a Fabry–Perot cavity formed between a partially coated gradient-index lens and a movable reflector. Displacement is determined by the detection of interference fringes caused by phase modulation within the cavity. The sensor was tested in conjunction with both multimode and single-mode fiber transmission. Calibration with multimode fiber produced a fringe-contrast function that decreased monotonically with displacement. This calibration allowed at least 30 fringes to be discriminated, giving a displacement resolution of 0.034 µm across a range of 10.2 µm. Dynamic tests demonstrated a working range of at least 3.74 µm at frequencies as high as 2 kHz. Similar tests in which single-mode fiber was used indicated a dynamic working range of at least 4.29 µm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Serridge, “What makes vibration condition monitoring reliable?,” Noise Vib. Worldwide17–24 September1991.
  2. J. Q. Lang, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring of high-voltage switchgear,” in Proceedings of the Conférence Internationale Des Grands Réseaux Electriques (CIGRE), 13th Symposium on High Voltage Switchgear, Parramatta, Sydney, Australia, 31 May 1995 (CIGRE, Sydney, Australia, 1995).
  3. T. K. Gangopadhyay, P. J. Henderson, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring using a dynamic proximity sensor with interferometric encoding,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5557–5561 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1986).
  5. R. F. Steidel, An Introduction to Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  6. B. Lindsay, Lord Rayleigh: The Man and His Work (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1970).
  7. R. Baker, Introduction to Vibration—a Handbook (Ling Dynamic Systems Ltd., Heath Works, Baldock Road, Royston, Hertfordshire SG8 5BQ, England, 1995).
  8. C. S. Lin, R. S. Chang, “Fiber optic displacement sensors for the measurement of a vibrating object,” Precis. Eng. 16, 302–306 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Mencaglia, M. Brenci, A. G. Mignani, “Optical-fiber sensor-network for temperature and proximity control,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials (Institute of Physics, Glasgow, UK, 1992), pp. 45–48.
  10. I. Paulicka, A. Al-Hamdani, V. Sochor, “Optical fiber Fabry–Perot sensor for the detection of small vibrations and displacements,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippengi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1066–1067 (1993).
  11. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, A. Dandridge, “Interferometric optical fiber sensors for absolute measurement of displacement and strain,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 40–50 (1991).
  12. Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. C. Lewin, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, “Noncontact surface vibration analysis using a monomode fiber-optic interferometer incorporating an open air path,” J. Phys. E. 18, 604–608 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. A. Jackson, “Monomode optical fiber interferometers for precision measurement,” J. Phys. E 18, 981–1001 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).
  16. K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, “Quadrature phase-shifted, extrinsic Fabry–Perot optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett. 16, 273–275 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Ezbiri, R. P. Tatam, “Passive signal processing for a miniature Fabry–Perot interferometric sensor with a multimode laser-diode source,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1818–1820 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Mio, K. Tsubono, “Vibration transducer using an ultrashort Fabry–Perot cavity,” Appl. Opt. 34, 186–189 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, Z. G. Yang, “A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sensors Actuators Phys. 69, 134–138 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. S. Sudarshanam, R. O. Claus, “Split-cavity cross-coupled extrinsic fiber-optic interferometric sensor,” Opt. Lett. 18, 543–545 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. D. Butler, G. B. Hocker, “Fiber-optic strain gauge,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2867–2869 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1998

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, Z. G. Yang, “A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sensors Actuators Phys. 69, 134–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Gangopadhyay, P. J. Henderson, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring using a dynamic proximity sensor with interferometric encoding,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5557–5561 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

C. S. Lin, R. S. Chang, “Fiber optic displacement sensors for the measurement of a vibrating object,” Precis. Eng. 16, 302–306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

1985

A. C. Lewin, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, “Noncontact surface vibration analysis using a monomode fiber-optic interferometer incorporating an open air path,” J. Phys. E. 18, 604–608 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jackson, “Monomode optical fiber interferometers for precision measurement,” J. Phys. E 18, 981–1001 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).

1978

Al-Hamdani, A.

I. Paulicka, A. Al-Hamdani, V. Sochor, “Optical fiber Fabry–Perot sensor for the detection of small vibrations and displacements,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippengi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1066–1067 (1993).

Baker, R.

R. Baker, Introduction to Vibration—a Handbook (Ling Dynamic Systems Ltd., Heath Works, Baldock Road, Royston, Hertfordshire SG8 5BQ, England, 1995).

Berkoff, T. A.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, A. Dandridge, “Interferometric optical fiber sensors for absolute measurement of displacement and strain,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 40–50 (1991).

Brenci, M.

A. Mencaglia, M. Brenci, A. G. Mignani, “Optical-fiber sensor-network for temperature and proximity control,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials (Institute of Physics, Glasgow, UK, 1992), pp. 45–48.

Butler, C. D.

Chang, R. S.

C. S. Lin, R. S. Chang, “Fiber optic displacement sensors for the measurement of a vibrating object,” Precis. Eng. 16, 302–306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

Coleman, A. J.

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, A. Dandridge, “Interferometric optical fiber sensors for absolute measurement of displacement and strain,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 40–50 (1991).

Draguioti, E.

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ezbiri, A.

Furstenau, N.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, T. K.

Goetze, W.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, M. F.

Henderson, P. J.

Hocker, G. B.

Horack, H.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).

Jackson, D. A.

Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lewin, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, “Noncontact surface vibration analysis using a monomode fiber-optic interferometer incorporating an open air path,” J. Phys. E. 18, 604–608 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jackson, “Monomode optical fiber interferometers for precision measurement,” J. Phys. E 18, 981–1001 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. C. Lewin, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, “Noncontact surface vibration analysis using a monomode fiber-optic interferometer incorporating an open air path,” J. Phys. E. 18, 604–608 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, A. Dandridge, “Interferometric optical fiber sensors for absolute measurement of displacement and strain,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 40–50 (1991).

Kurosawa, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).

Lang, J. Q.

J. Q. Lang, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring of high-voltage switchgear,” in Proceedings of the Conférence Internationale Des Grands Réseaux Electriques (CIGRE), 13th Symposium on High Voltage Switchgear, Parramatta, Sydney, Australia, 31 May 1995 (CIGRE, Sydney, Australia, 1995).

Lewin, A. C.

A. C. Lewin, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, “Noncontact surface vibration analysis using a monomode fiber-optic interferometer incorporating an open air path,” J. Phys. E. 18, 604–608 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. S.

C. S. Lin, R. S. Chang, “Fiber optic displacement sensors for the measurement of a vibrating object,” Precis. Eng. 16, 302–306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, B.

B. Lindsay, Lord Rayleigh: The Man and His Work (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1970).

Mencaglia, A.

A. Mencaglia, M. Brenci, A. G. Mignani, “Optical-fiber sensor-network for temperature and proximity control,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials (Institute of Physics, Glasgow, UK, 1992), pp. 45–48.

Mignani, A. G.

A. Mencaglia, M. Brenci, A. G. Mignani, “Optical-fiber sensor-network for temperature and proximity control,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials (Institute of Physics, Glasgow, UK, 1992), pp. 45–48.

Mio, N.

Murphy, K. A.

Ose, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).

Paulicka, I.

I. Paulicka, A. Al-Hamdani, V. Sochor, “Optical fiber Fabry–Perot sensor for the detection of small vibrations and displacements,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippengi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1066–1067 (1993).

Rao, S. S.

S. S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1986).

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, J. E.

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Serridge, M.

M. Serridge, “What makes vibration condition monitoring reliable?,” Noise Vib. Worldwide17–24 September1991.

Shotri, N.

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sochor, V.

I. Paulicka, A. Al-Hamdani, V. Sochor, “Optical fiber Fabry–Perot sensor for the detection of small vibrations and displacements,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippengi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1066–1067 (1993).

Steidel, R. F.

R. F. Steidel, An Introduction to Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Stokes, A. D.

T. K. Gangopadhyay, P. J. Henderson, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring using a dynamic proximity sensor with interferometric encoding,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5557–5561 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lang, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring of high-voltage switchgear,” in Proceedings of the Conférence Internationale Des Grands Réseaux Electriques (CIGRE), 13th Symposium on High Voltage Switchgear, Parramatta, Sydney, Australia, 31 May 1995 (CIGRE, Sydney, Australia, 1995).

Sudarshanam, V. S.

Tatam, R. P.

Tiptaf, R.

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsubono, K.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, T. Y.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, Z. G. Yang, “A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sensors Actuators Phys. 69, 134–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. G.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, Z. G. Yang, “A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sensors Actuators Phys. 69, 134–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).

Zheng, S. X.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, Z. G. Yang, “A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sensors Actuators Phys. 69, 134–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

N. Furstenau, M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, W. Schmidt, “Extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer vibration and acoustic sensor,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144, 134–144 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensors applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626–665 (1982).

J. Phys. E

D. A. Jackson, “Monomode optical fiber interferometers for precision measurement,” J. Phys. E 18, 981–1001 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E.

A. C. Lewin, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, “Noncontact surface vibration analysis using a monomode fiber-optic interferometer incorporating an open air path,” J. Phys. E. 18, 604–608 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noise Vib. Worldwide

M. Serridge, “What makes vibration condition monitoring reliable?,” Noise Vib. Worldwide17–24 September1991.

Opt. Lett.

Precis. Eng.

C. S. Lin, R. S. Chang, “Fiber optic displacement sensors for the measurement of a vibrating object,” Precis. Eng. 16, 302–306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators Phys.

T. Y. Wang, S. X. Zheng, Z. G. Yang, “A high precision displacement sensor using a low-finesse fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sensors Actuators Phys. 69, 134–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

A. J. Coleman, E. Draguioti, R. Tiptaf, N. Shotri, J. E. Saunders, “Acoustic performance and clinical use of a fiber-optic hydrophone,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24, 143–151 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Q. Lang, A. D. Stokes, “Vibration monitoring of high-voltage switchgear,” in Proceedings of the Conférence Internationale Des Grands Réseaux Electriques (CIGRE), 13th Symposium on High Voltage Switchgear, Parramatta, Sydney, Australia, 31 May 1995 (CIGRE, Sydney, Australia, 1995).

A. Mencaglia, M. Brenci, A. G. Mignani, “Optical-fiber sensor-network for temperature and proximity control,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials (Institute of Physics, Glasgow, UK, 1992), pp. 45–48.

I. Paulicka, A. Al-Hamdani, V. Sochor, “Optical fiber Fabry–Perot sensor for the detection of small vibrations and displacements,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippengi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1066–1067 (1993).

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, A. Dandridge, “Interferometric optical fiber sensors for absolute measurement of displacement and strain,” in Fiber Optic Sensors: Engineering and Applications, A. J. Bruinsma, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE1511, 40–50 (1991).

S. S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1986).

R. F. Steidel, An Introduction to Mechanical Vibrations, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1979).

B. Lindsay, Lord Rayleigh: The Man and His Work (Pergamon, Oxford, England, 1970).

R. Baker, Introduction to Vibration—a Handbook (Ling Dynamic Systems Ltd., Heath Works, Baldock Road, Royston, Hertfordshire SG8 5BQ, England, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the multimode sensor system: FFT, fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the one-cavity Fabry–Perot etalon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity-based displacement measurement comparing the plane-mirror and the polished-steel reflectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Displacement resolutions obtained with the plane-mirror and the polished-steel reflectors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration for the multimode FPI sensor over 30 fringes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

matlab representation of the multimode fringe-transfer function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response of the multimode FPI sensor to 2-kHz amplitude vibration: a, 0.17 µm; b, 2.72 µm; and c, 3.74 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation in the number of fringes with voltage applied to the ceramic vibrator: PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the single-mode FPI sensor system: CRO, cathode ray oscilloscope.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Response of the single-mode FPI sensor to 2-kHz amplitude vibration: a, 0.19 µm; b, 4.29 µm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D=VπF=gV2π2F2=2V2gA,
D=Nλ/2,
I=1+2Trr+2d tansin-1NAcos4πdλ+Trr+2d tansin-1NA2,

Metrics